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系統識別號 U0017-0610201510523241
論文名稱(中文) EMD訊號擷取模式及HHT頻譜解析 圖形判讀準則建立與混凝土橋損傷驗證
論文名稱(英文) The study of construction and verification in EMD signal acquisition model and the judgment rules of HHT spectrum in damaged concrete bridges
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Civil Engineering
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 陳柏麟
學號 9102202
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 198頁
指導教授 指導教授-張達德
關鍵字(中) 經驗模態分解法
希爾伯特黃轉換
主振模態分散
EMD訊號擷取模式
HHT頻譜解析圖形判讀準則
關鍵字(英) Empirical Mode Decomposition(EMD)
The main vibrating mode
EMD signal acquisition mode
The judgment criteria of the HHT
Hilbert Huang Transform(HHT)
學科別分類
中文摘要 經驗模態分解法(EMD)與希爾伯特黃轉換(HHT)頻譜解析理論自發展以來,廣為各界頻譜解析研究人員所討論。 EMD雖具有訊號分解的特殊功能,但須仰賴解析者的經驗設定時間尺度以進行訊號分解。而解析所得之分量經常會產生嚴重的模態混合或主振模態分散,無法在單一分量中獲得完整主振模態,這樣的結果將使得訊號分解失去意義。一旦訊號分解失去意義,接下來的
HHT頻譜圖形的解析就失去其判讀的價值。
本研究為了有效解決EMD訊號分解所衍生的問題,並建立具體的HHT頻譜解析圖形判讀準則,先於實驗室進行訊號模擬分析、實驗室振動試驗模擬分析,並於雲林興南大橋進行現地振動量測試驗,以獲得實際的橋樑振動訊號進行初步的解析與探討。針對初期試驗所得成果及所發現的問題深入研究,並建立EMD訊號擷取模式及HHT頻譜解析圖形判讀準則。最終,分別以新濱二號橋以及雲林興南大橋沖刷橋墩系統之振動訊號為實例進行解析與驗證。
由驗證結果可證實,藉由EMD訊號擷取模式的建立,可以有效率且正確的在單一分量中獲得量測對象的振動模態。此突破不但提供研究人員一套可依循
參考的訊號分解模式,使得EMD訊號分解理論得以有效被應用。
HHT頻譜解析圖形的判讀準則與程序的具體化,雖屬初步的概念,但其中針對IMF分量的選用、可判讀區間的檢視、模態混合與頻率損失區間的判別、HHT頻譜圖中的強迫振動區間與自然振動區間判斷、邊際頻譜圖中雙峰現現象以及HHT頻譜圖與邊際頻譜圖的交叉比對等皆提出可供參考的判讀方法。


英文摘要 Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD)as well as Hilbert Huang Transform(HHT)has been widely discussed by the spectrum researchers since the theory of spectrum analysis developed. Function of decomposing the signal as it carries, EMD counts on the analyst’s experience to set the timescale in the process of decomposing the signal. However, the analytical component often brings about the severe mixed mode or dispersion of the main vibrating mode; it is unable to gain the completely main vibrating mode in a single component. Such a result will make not only the
decomposition of signal meaningless but the following HHT spectrum analysis
valueless in judgment.
In order to solve the problem caused by EMD efficiently and establish the concrete criteria in judging the HHT graph, the research was first done in the lab to go about the simulated analysis of the signal and of the vibrating test as well. Furthermore, the vibrating test proceeding at the Shin Nan Bridge was done so as to gain the really vibrating signal from the bridge, and it could be used to do the initial analysis and discussion. Based on the testing consequence at the early stage, the research went on in detail and established the signal acquisition mode in EMD and the judgment criteria of the spectrum analysis graph in HHT. In the end, the vibrating signal of the scoured pier system separately at the Shin Pin Bridge and the Shin Nan Bridge could be used to carry out the analysis and test.
As demonstrated by the testing consequence, it can be efficient and correct to gain the vibrating mode of the measured object over the single component. The breakthrough not only offers the researchers a set of reference to the signal
decomposition mode to follow but makes EMD signal acquisition mode efficiently
applied.
Initial concept though it is, the judgment criteria of the HHT graph along with its established procedure shows the measures of judgment, particularly in IMF options, inspections of judgment range, judgment between the mixed mode and the section of frequency loss, judgment between the forced vibration and free vibration in HHT, two-peak phenomenon in the marginal spectrum, and cross comparison
between HHT and the marginal spectrum.


論文目次 目次
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
誌謝 IV
目錄 V
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 XVII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究緣起 1
1.2研究動機與目的 2
1.3研究方法 3
1.4研究內容與架構 4
第二章 文獻回顧 8
2.1經驗模態分解法及希爾伯特黃頻譜解析理論 9
2.1.1 即時頻率(Instantaneous Frequency) 9
2.1.2 內建模態函數(Intrinsic Mode Function)14
2.1.3 經驗模態分解法(Empirical Mode
Decomposition)15
2.1.4 完整性與正交性(Completeness and
Orthogonal) 21
2.1.5 間斷性準則(Intermittency Criterion)22
2.1.6 希爾伯特頻譜(Hilbert Spectrum) 25
2.1.7 邊際頻譜(Marginal Spectrum) 26
2.2分析軟體介紹 27
2.2.1 WinHhtP視窗化EMD執行軟體 27
2.2.2 Matlab視窗化HHT分析軟體 27
2.3 算例說明 27
2.3.1 EMD與HHT理論於線性資料解析案例說明 27
2.3.2 EMD與HHT理論於非線性資料解析案例說明 29
2.4 國內外應用文獻 33
2.4.1 國外應用文獻 33
2.4.2 國內應用文獻 34
2.5 EMD經驗模態分解法及HHT頻譜解析理論之實際應用問
題探討 36
第三章 EMD訊號擷取模式及HHT頻譜解析圖形判讀準則建立的研
究 39
3.1 EMD訊號擷取模式[n1,n2]之建立 40
3.1.1 興南大橋現地振動量測試驗 40
3.1.2 EMD自動執行模式(CE模式) 42
3.1.3間斷性準則之應用-CEI(n’)模式之建立 49
3.1.4 EMD訊號擷取模式[n1,n2]之建立 55
3.1.5各種模式訊號分解成效之比較 59
3.1.6 EMD訊號擷取模式[n1,n2]執行程序建立 61
3.2 HHT頻譜解析圖形判讀準則之建立 62
3.3 EMD-HHT執行及解析判讀程序步驟建立 67
第四章 驗證試驗規劃與執行 71
4.1 驗證試驗規劃架構 71
4.2 試驗儀器設備 71
4.3 桃園縣新屋鄉新濱二號橋振動量測試驗 77
4.4 雲林縣虎尾鎮興南大橋沖刷橋墩系統振動量測試驗 80
4.5 振動訊號分析方法 82
第五章 驗証試驗結果分析與探討 84
5.1驗證案例一:桃園縣新屋鄉新濱二號橋 84
5.2驗證案例二:雲林縣興南大橋沖刷橋墩系統 120
第六章 結論與建議 154
參考文獻 157
附錄一:WinHhtP操作程序說明 160
附錄二:HHT頻譜解析法常用程式語言指令 168
附錄三:HHT頻譜解析法分析程式範例 176

圖 目 錄
圖 1.1 研究架構流程圖 7
圖 2.1 HHT解析流程 8
圖 2.2 多分量訊號 10
圖 2.3 計算的即時頻率及訊號真實的頻率 11
圖 2.4 即時頻率的物理釋意圖 13
圖2.5原始資料與各近似立方弧線之包絡線 14
圖2.6原始振動訊號 18
圖2.7極值包絡線與均值包絡線 18
圖2.8第一次篩選動作所得分量 18
圖2.9以 為新訊號進行下一次篩選動作 18
圖2.10 第二次篩選所得結果 18
圖 2.11 n次篩選動作所得IMFs示意圖 18
圖 2.12 CE分解模式所得IMFs 24
圖 2.13 CEI分解模式所得IMFs 24
圖 2.14 HHT應用於線性資料分析流程與分析結果說明示意圖28
圖 2.15 非線性函數cos(ωt+εsinωt)原始圖 30
圖 2.16 Wavelet Spectrum 與 HHT Spectrum 之差異說明
示意圖 30
圖 2.17 HHT、Wavelet 與 Fourier邊際頻譜之差異說明示意
圖 31
圖 2.18 Fourier、Wavelet 與 Hilbert Spectra 之差異
性比較示意圖 32
圖3.1興南大橋現況 41
圖3.2基礎沖刷裸露現況 41
圖 3.3 興南大橋現地試驗規劃及人員配置示意圖 42
圖3.4 興南大橋量測點2-原始振動訊號資料 44
圖3.5 興南大橋量測點2 -IMFs分量圖(CE模式)44
圖 3.6 興南大橋量測點2 -C1分量之HHT頻譜圖(CE模式)45
圖 3.7 興南大橋量測點2 -C2分量之HHT頻譜圖(CE模式)45
圖 3.8 興南大橋量測點2 -C3分量之HHT頻譜圖(CE模式)45
圖 3.9 興南大橋量測點2 -C4分量之HHT頻譜圖(CE模式)46
圖 3.10 興南大橋量測點2 -C5分量之HHT頻譜圖(CE模式)46
圖 3.11 興南大橋量測點2 -C6分量之HHT頻譜圖(CE模式)
46
圖 3.12 興南大橋量測點2 -C7分量之HHT頻譜圖(CE模式)
47
圖 3.13 興南大橋量測點2 -C8分量之HHT頻譜圖(CE模式)
47
圖 3.14 興南大橋量測點2 -C9分量之HHT頻譜圖(CE模式)
47
圖 3.15 興南大橋量測點2 -C10分量之HHT頻譜圖(CE模式)
48
圖 3.16 C3&C4分量模態混合及主振模態分散示意圖 48
圖 3.17 CEI(20)模式 -IMF:C3分量之HHT頻譜圖 52
圖 3.18 CEI(20)模式 -IMF:C4分量之HHT頻譜圖 52
圖 3.19 CEI(20)模式 -IMF:C5分量之HHT頻譜圖 52
圖 3.20 CEI(20)模式 -IMF:C6分量之HHT頻譜圖 53
圖 3.21 CEI(20)模式 -IMF:C7分量之HHT頻譜圖 53
圖 3.22 CEI(20)模式 -IMF:C8分量之HHT頻譜圖 53
圖 3.23 CEI(16)模式 -IMF:C3分量之HHT頻譜圖 54
圖 3.24 CEI(16)模式 -IMF:C4分量之HHT頻譜圖 54
圖 3.25 CEI(16)模式 -IMF:C5分量之HHT頻譜圖 54
圖 3.26 訊號擷取概念示意圖(1)56
圖 3.27 訊號擷取概念示意圖(2)56
圖 3.28 訊號擷取概念示意圖(3)56
圖 3.29 EMD[13,50]-IMF:C3~C8分量圖 58
圖 3.30 EMD[13,50]-IMF:C5分量HHT頻譜圖 58
圖 3.31 CE模式-主振模態HHT頻譜圖形 60
圖 3.32 CEI(16)模式-主振模態HHT頻譜圖形 60
圖 3.33 EMD[13,50]模式-主振模態HHT頻譜圖形 60
圖 3.34 IMF模態混合區間與可判讀歷時區間示意圖 62
圖3.35 HHT分析圖形判讀示意圖 63
圖 3.36 (a)平峰現象;(b)單峰現象;(c)雙峰現象 64
圖 3.37 結構勁度弱化,MS單峰圖形變化過程示意圖 65
圖 3.38 結構勁度弱化,MS雙峰圖形變化過程示意圖 65
圖 3.39 EMD與HHT執行與解析判讀程序步驟示意圖 70
圖 4.1 驗證試驗規劃與執行流程圖 72
圖 4.2 941B型訊號感測器(水平向與垂直向) 74
圖 4.3 941型放大器(六線) 74
圖 4.4 SPARTAN-S資料擷取器 74
圖 4.5 新濱二號橋照片 78
圖 4.6 混凝土塊脫落及鋼筋裸露現象 79
圖 4.7 新濱二號橋現地試驗規劃及人員配置示意圖 79
圖 4.8 興南大橋現地照片 81
圖4.9 興南大橋第二根橋墩系統基樁裸露現況照片 81
圖 4.10 興南大橋現地試驗規劃及人員配置示意圖 82
圖 5.1新濱二號橋第一跨量測點2原始振動訊號 90
圖 5.2新濱二號橋第一跨量測點9原始振動訊號 90
圖 5.3 新濱二號橋點2:CE模式-IMF圖形 91
圖 5.4 新濱二號橋點2:CEI(20)模式-IMF圖形 92
圖 5.5 新濱二號橋點2:CEI(15)模式-IMF圖形 93
圖 5.6 新濱二號橋點2:EMD[13,50]模式-IMF C4:C9圖
形 94
圖 5.7 新濱二號橋點9:CE模式-IMF圖形 95
圖 5.8 新濱二號橋點9:CEI(20)模式-IMF圖形 96
圖 5.9 新濱二號橋點9:CEI(15)模式-IMF圖形 97
圖 5.10 新濱二號橋點9:EMD[13,50]模式-IMF C5:C11圖
形 98
圖 5.11 新濱二號橋點2:CE模式-IMF:C1 HHT頻譜圖 99
圖 5.12 新濱二號橋點2:CE模式-IMF:C2 HHT頻譜圖 99
圖 5.13 新濱二號橋點2:CE模式-IMF:C3 HHT頻譜圖 100
圖 5.14 新濱二號橋點2:CE模式-IMF:C4 HHT頻譜圖 100
圖 5.15 新濱二號橋點2:CE模式-IMF:C5 HHT頻譜圖 101
圖 5.16 新濱二號橋點2:CEI(20)模式-IMF:C7 HHT頻譜
圖 102
圖 5.17 新濱二號橋點2:CEI(20)模式-IMF:C8 HHT頻譜
圖 102
圖 5.18 新濱二號橋點2:CEI(20)模式-IMF:C9 HHT頻譜
圖 103
圖 5.19 新濱二號橋點2:CEI(15)模式-IMF:C5 HHT頻譜
圖 104
圖 5.20 新濱二號橋點2:CEI(15)模式-IMF:C6 HHT頻譜
圖 104
圖 5.21 新濱二號橋點2:CEI(15)模式-IMF:C7 HHT頻譜
圖 105
圖 5.22 新濱二號橋點2:EMD[13,50]模式-IMF C5 HHT頻
譜圖 106
圖 5.23 新濱二號橋點2:EMD[13,50]模式-IMF C6 HHT頻
譜圖 106
圖 5.24 新濱二號橋點2:EMD[13,50]模式-IMF C7 HHT頻
譜圖 107
圖 5.25 新濱二號橋點9:CE模式-IMF:C1 HHT頻譜圖 108
圖 5.26 新濱二號橋點9:CE模式-IMF:C2 HHT頻譜圖 108
圖 5.27 新濱二號橋點9:CE模式-IMF:C3 HHT頻譜圖 109
圖 5.28 新濱二號橋點9:CE模式-IMF:C4 HHT頻譜圖 109
圖 5.29 新濱二號橋點9:CE模式-IMF:C5 HHT頻譜圖 110
圖 5.30 新濱二號橋點9:CEI(20)模式-IMF:C4 HHT頻譜
圖 111
圖 5.31 新濱二號橋點9:CEI(20)模式-IMF:C5 HHT頻譜
圖 111
圖 5.32 新濱二號橋點9:CEI(20)模式-IMF:C6 HHT頻譜
圖 112
圖 5.33 新濱二號橋點9:CEI(20)模式-IMF:C7 HHT頻譜
圖 112
圖 5.34 新濱二號橋點9:CEI(20)模式-IMF:C8 HHT頻譜
圖 113
圖 5.35 新濱二號橋點9:CEI(20)模式-IMF:C9 HHT頻譜
圖 113
圖 5.36 新濱二號橋點9:CEI(20)模式-IMF:C10 HHT頻
譜圖 114
圖 5.37 新濱二號橋點9:CEI(15)模式-IMF:C7 HHT頻譜
圖 115
圖 5.38 新濱二號橋點9:CEI(15)模式-IMF:C8 HHT頻譜
圖 115
圖 5.39 新濱二號橋點9:CEI(15)模式-IMF:C9 HHT頻譜
圖 116
圖 5.40 新濱二號橋點9:EMD[13,50]模式-IMF C8 HHT頻
譜圖 117
圖 5.41 新濱二號橋點9:EMD[13,50]模式-IMF C9 HHT頻
譜圖 117
圖 5.42 新濱二號橋點2:EMD[13,50]模式-IMF:C6 MS邊
際頻譜圖 118
圖 5.43 新濱二號橋點9:EMD[13,50]模式-IMF:C9 MS邊
際頻譜圖 119
圖 5.44 新濱二號橋點2、點9 -EMD[13,50]模式邊際頻譜交
叉比對圖 119
圖 5.45 興南大橋橋墩系統量測點4原始振動訊號 126
圖 5.46 興南大橋橋墩系統量測點7原始振動訊號 126
圖 5.47 興南大橋點4:CE模式-IMF圖形 127
圖 5.48 興南大橋點4:CEI(50)模式-IMF圖形 128
圖 5.49 興南大橋點4:CEI(40)模式-IMF圖形 129
圖 5.50 興南大橋點4:EMD[34,100]模式-IMF圖形 130
圖 5.51 興南大橋點7:CE模式-IMF圖形 131
圖 5.52 興南大橋點7:CEI(50)模式-IMF圖形 132
圖 5.53 興南大橋點7:CEI(40)模式-IMF圖形 133
圖 5.54 興南大橋點7:EMD[34,100]模式-IMF圖形 134
圖 5.55 興南大橋點4:CE模式-IMF:C3 HHT頻譜圖 135
圖 5.56 興南大橋點4:CE模式-IMF:C4 HHT頻譜圖 135
圖 5.57 興南大橋點4:CE模式-IMF:C5 HHT頻譜圖 136
圖 5.58 興南大橋點4:CE模式-IMF:C6 HHT頻譜圖 136
圖 5.59 興南大橋點4:CEI(50)模式-IMF:C4 HHT頻譜
圖 137
圖 5.60 興南大橋點4:CEI(50)模式-IMF:C5 HHT頻譜
圖 137
圖 5.61 興南大橋點4:CEI(50)模式-IMF:C6 HHT頻譜
圖 138
圖 5.62 興南大橋點4:CEI(50)模式-IMF:C7 HHT頻譜
圖 138
圖 5.63 興南大橋點4:CEI(40)模式-IMF:C4 HHT頻譜
圖 139
圖 5.64 興南大橋點4:CEI(40)模式-IMF:C5 HHT頻譜
圖 139
圖 5.65 興南大橋點4:CEI(40)模式-IMF:C6 HHT頻譜
圖 140
圖 5.66 興南大橋點4:CEI(40)模式-IMF:C7 HHT頻譜
圖 140
圖 5.67 興南大橋點4:EMD[34,100]模式-IMF:C8 HHT頻
譜圖 141
圖 5.68 興南大橋點4:EMD[34,100]模式-IMF:C9 HHT頻
譜圖 141
圖 5.69 興南大橋點4:EMD[34,100]模式-IMF:C10 HHT頻
譜圖 142
圖 5.70 興南大橋點7:CE模式-IMF:C3 HHT頻譜圖 143
圖 5.71 興南大橋點7:CE模式-IMF:C4 HHT頻譜圖 143
圖 5.72 興南大橋點7:CE模式-IMF:C5 HHT頻譜圖 144
圖 5.73 興南大橋點7:CE模式-IMF:C6 HHT頻譜圖 144
圖 5.74 興南大橋點7:CEI(50)模式-IMF:C3 HHT頻譜
圖 145
圖 5.75 興南大橋點7:CEI(50)模式-IMF:C4 HHT頻譜
圖 145
圖 5.76 興南大橋點7:CEI(50)模式-IMF:C5 HHT頻譜
圖 146
圖 5.77 興南大橋點7:CEI(50)模式-IMF:C6 HHT頻譜
圖 146
圖 5.78 興南大橋點7:CEI(50)模式-IMF:C7 HHT頻譜
圖 147
圖 5.79 興南大橋點7:CEI(50)模式-IMF:C8 HHT頻譜
圖 147
圖 5.80 興南大橋點7:CEI(40)模式-IMF:C6 HHT頻譜
圖 148
圖 5.81 興南大橋點7:CEI(40)模式-IMF:C7 HHT頻譜
圖 148
圖 5.82 興南大橋點7:CEI(40)模式-IMF:C8 HHT頻譜
圖 149
圖 5.83 興南大橋點7:CEI(40)模式-IMF:C9 HHT頻譜
圖 149
圖 5.84 興南大橋點7:EMD[34,100]模式-IMF:C5 HHT頻
譜圖 150
圖 5.85 興南大橋點7:EMD[34,100]模式-IMF:C6 HHT頻
譜圖 150
圖 5.86 興南大橋點7:EMD[34,100]模式-IMF:C7 HHT頻
譜圖 151
圖 5.87 興南大橋點4:EMD[34,100]模式-IMF:C9 MS邊
際頻譜圖 152
圖 5.88 興南大橋點7:EMD[34,100]模式-IMF:C6 MS邊
際頻譜圖 152
圖 5.89 興南大橋點4、點7 -EMD[34,100]模式邊際頻譜交
叉比對圖 153

表 目 錄
表 2.1 Fourier , Wavelet & Hilbert特性比較表 31
表 3.1 各種訊號分解模式優劣性比較表 61
表 4.1 記讀系統規格 75
表 4.2 KYOWA訊號感測器規格 76
表 4.3 EDS400A資料擷取器規格 76
表 4.4 記讀系統規格 77


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附註 etd-0611109-155014

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系統識別號 U0017-0610201510534205
論文名稱(中文) 國小教師多元文化素養之形成與實踐
論文名稱(英文) Multicultural Literacy Cultivation and Implementation of Elementary School Teachers
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 教育研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate School of Education
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 賴靜宣
學號 9558011
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 208頁
指導教授 指導教授-簡玉敏
關鍵字(中) 多元文化素養
多元文化教育
新移民子女
關鍵字(英) New Immigrant Children
Multicultural Education
Multicultural Literacy
學科別分類
中文摘要 身處於多元文化的社會中,多元文化議題為當代研究之趨勢。教師為推行多元文化教育之第一線人員,因此教師之角色與多元文化素養尤顯重要。本研究的目的為探究國小教師多元文化素養之形成及教學上的實踐情形,並分析教師多元文化素養發展與實踐之互動歷程。由於多元文化素養為一內化的思維,而質化研究可以更深入看見個人對文化的自我覺察。因此本研究選擇桃園縣自由(化名)國小兩位教師為研究參與者,進行個案研究。兩位老師以多元文化教育為核心的教案設計,獲得「永續校園與環境教育協同教學教案」特優。本研究藉由深入訪談、參與觀察、及文件分析方法進行資料的蒐集,且運用持續比較法(Glaser & Strauss, 1967)進行資料分析,並運用三角檢證、研究者回饋及參與者查證,以確保資料的真實性。
教師的多元文化素養發展是一個連續而長久的過程,本研究發現兩位老師對多元文化價值的判斷是來自成長背景、求學過程與教職生涯中,透過人際互動、事件經歷等個人對文化經驗的累積加以轉化而成,最後形成自身的多元文化素養。依據資料分析結果,獲得以下結論:
一、多元文化素養的形成是經過成長背景、求學經驗及教職生涯的經歷,透過與他人互動而不斷開展。
二、多元文化認知的實踐上,從認同自己的文化,推己及人至接納不同文化。
三、多元文化技能的實踐上,落實文化回應教學,營造多元共融的教室氣氛,提升師生多元文化批判能力。
四、多元文化覺知的實踐上,著重在自身刻板印象的覺察,扮演批判者的角色,並追求社會的公平正義。
五、多元文化素養的互動歷程是一個由內而外的迴圈,多元文化理念與實踐經由不斷交錯、反思與修正的循環過程,產生質變與量變


英文摘要 Researching multicultural issue is a trend in the multicultural society. Teacher plays an important role in multicultural education, which points out the importance of teacher’s multicultural literacy. The purpose of this research is to understand multicultural literacy cultivation and implementation of elementary school teachers; moreover, to analyze the interaction between implementation and evolving process of teacher’s multicultural literacy.
Because of multicultural literacy is an internal thought that requires personal awareness and reflection toward diverse cultures; this study employs a case study by using a qualitative approach. Freedom Elementary School is selected for its reputation of quality multicultural education. Two teachers, who won a prize of excellent curriculum design in multicultural education at Tao Yuan County, are chosen for this study. Data collection included formal and informal interviews, observation and document analysis. Data trustworthiness includes triangulation, feedback and member check from the instructors for the accuracy of data interpretation.
Teacher’s multicultural literacy is a continuous and permanent process. Based on the analysis result, this study has reached the following conclusions:
1. The findings indicate that the evolving process of multicultural literacy is from the growth background, the process of studies pursuing and careers of being teacher. Through the interpersonal interaction and experience, teachers can transform cultural experiences to multicultural literacy.
2. In practice of multicultural cognition, teachers have positive perspective on ethnic group, and from approving self to accepting different culture.
3. In practice of multicultural skill, teachers can carry out the culturally responsive teaching, building a harmony classroom, and promote their own and students’ multicultural critique ability.
4. In practice of multicultural cordiality, teachers can inspect self-mechanical impression, and plays a criticized role to pursuing fair faith and social justice.
5. The interaction between implementation and evolving process of multicultural literacy is from inside to outside like a spiral, and the multicultural idea and practice is a chain reaction and cyclic process by unceasingly introspect and revise. It is a process of qualitative and quantitative change.


論文目次 目次
摘要 i
Abstract ii
謝誌 iv
目次 v
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 viii
第一章緒論1
第一節 研究動機與目的1
第二節 研究問題4
第三節 名詞界定5
第二章 文獻探討7
第一節 多元文化教育之意涵與實施7
第二節 多元文化素養之意義與內涵 21
第三節 教師多元文化素養與實踐之相關研究 45
第三章 研究方法與實施 57
第一節 研究方法與架構 57
第二節 研究參與者 59
第三節 資料蒐集的方法 62
第四節 資料分析與解釋 67
第五節 研究的真實性 68
第六節 研究者角色 69
第七節 研究倫理 69
第八節 研究限制 70
第四章 研究結果與討論 71
第一節 教師多元文化素養之形成 71
第二節 教師多元文化素養之實踐 97
第三節 教師多元文化素養發展與實踐之互動歷程159
第五章 結論與建議169
第一節 結論169
第二節 建議173
參考文獻 179
中文部分 179
西文部分 184
附錄 189
附錄一 教師多元文化素養與實踐之相關研究189

圖次
圖2-1 意識發展的金字塔圖39
圖2-2 多元文化轉變的模式41
圖3-1 教師多元文化素養研究架構圖58
圖4-1 教師多元文化素養發展與實踐的互動歷程 165

表次
表2-1 國小教師多元文化素養指標30
表2-2 影響教師多元文化素養形成因素-國內研究統計表46
表2-3 影響教師多元文化素養形成因素-國外研究統計表47
表2-4 影響教師多元文化素養形成因素-國內外研究統計表48
表2-5 教師多元文化素養相關研究主題、對象、方法統計表52
表3-1 研究參與者基本資料61
表3-2 訪談時間記錄表64
表3-3 觀察時間記錄表65
表4-1 教師多元文化素養之形成92
表4-2 教師多元文化素養之實踐143
表4-3 教師多元文化素養之形成、實踐與其互動167
附表1 國內教師多元文化素養與實踐之相關研究 217
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系統識別號 U0017-0610201511003753
論文名稱(中文) 新移民子女社會支持與幸福感之相關研究-以桃園縣公立國小為例
論文名稱(英文) A Study on the Relationships between Social Support and Well-Being Conception of the New Immigrants’ Children in Public Elementary Schools—Taoyuan County as an Example
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 教育研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate School of Education
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 李如華
學號 9758620
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 236頁
指導教授 指導教授-楊慶麟
關鍵字(中) 新移民子女
幸福感
社會支持
關鍵字(英) well-being
social support
the new immigrants’ children
學科別分類
中文摘要 摘要
本研究旨在探討桃園縣公立國小新移民子女社會支持與幸福感的現況,並分析新移民子女社會支持與幸福感的相關性以及預測力。
本研究採問卷調查法,以桃園縣公立國小新移民子女1069名學生為研究對象,問卷回收有效樣本1013份。使用的工具包括「新民子女社會支持問卷」與「新民子女幸福感問卷」,首先分別探討桃園縣公立國小新移民子女社會支持與幸福感的現況,其次分別考驗不同背景變項之公立國小新移民子女社會支持與幸福感是否有顯著性差異,最後更進一步探討公立國小新移民子女社會支持與幸福感的相關性以及社會支持對幸福感的預測力。所得資料採用平均數、t考驗、單因子變異數分析、皮爾遜積差相關、典型相關、多元迴歸等統計方法進行分析。其研究結果如下:
一、桃園縣公立國小新移民子女社會支持屬中高程度,各層面中以「實質性支持」得分最高,而「社會網絡支持」得分相對最低。
二、桃園縣公立國小新移民子女幸福感屬中高程度,各層面中以「人際和諧」得分最高,而「生活滿意」得分相對最低。
三、不同背景變項的桃園縣公立國小新移民子女在「整體社會支持」有顯著的差異。女生高於男生、父親職業第一類高於職業第二類的學生。
四、不同背景變項的桃園縣公立國小新移民子女在「整體幸福感」達顯著差異者:女生優於男生;大家庭優於單親家庭、小家庭優於單親家庭;父親職業第一類高於父親職業第二類。
五、桃園縣公立國小新移民子女社會支持與幸福感有一組典型因素存在。
六、桃園縣公立國小新移民子女社會支持對幸福感具有高度預測力。

根據上述所得之結果,提出本研究對教育行政機關、學校、教師、家長與未來研究者之建議。
英文摘要 Abstract
The purpose of this study is to explore the actual condition of social support and well-being conception , as well as to analyze the relationship between social support and well-being conception of the public elementary school immigrant students in Taoyuan County.
The study was conducted by means of questionnaire surveys.The participants are the public elementary school immigrant students in Taoyuan County. Among the 1069 questionnaires, 1013 are valid. The researcher compiled the questionnaires based on relevant literature, the opinions of educational experts and senior high school teachers. “The Questionnaire for Social Support and Well-Being Conception of the New Immigrants’ Children” was used as a research tool for the study.
The statistical procedures used in this research are mean, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson product-moment correlation, and Canonical correlation.
The research obtained conclusions are as following:
1. The social support of the public elementary school immigrants’ children is above the average, among which, “tangible support” gets the highest score, and “social network support” gets the lowest one.
2. The well-being conception of the public elementary school immigrants’ children is above the average, among which, “harmony of the relationship” gets the highest score; the score of “satisfication of life” is under the average.
3. The students with different backgrounds have significant difference in “whole social support” : the femal students get more support than the male ones and the ones whose fathers’ occupation is in the first group also get more support than the ones in the second group.
4. The students with different backgrounds have significant difference in in well-being conception: the female students are happier than male ones; the students coming from an extended family are happier than the ones with single parent family; the nuclear family is happier than the single parent family; the ones whose fathers’ occupation is in the first group are happier than the ones in the second group.
5. There is one canonical factors between the dimensions of social support and well-being conception .
6. The social support has a significant high effect on well-being conception.

According to the findings above, suggestions are offered to educational administrations, schools, teachers, parents and future researchers.
論文目次 目 次
摘要................................................................................... Ⅰ
Abstract.............................................................................. Ⅱ
謝辭................................................................................... Ⅲ
目次................................................................................... Ⅳ
表次................................................................................... Ⅵ
圖次................................................................................... Ⅸ

第一章 緒論……………………………………..……. 1
第一節 研究背景與動機……………………………………… 1
第二節 研究目的………………………………….................... 6
第三節 研究問題........................................................................ 7
第四節 名詞釋義……………………………………………… 8
第五節 研究範圍與限制……………………………………… 10
第二章 文獻探討……………………………………... 11
第一節 新移民女性及其子女人口發展與社會適應概況…… 11
第二節 社會支持之相關內涵………………………………… 17
第三節 幸福感之相關內涵……………………………............ 39
第四節 相關研究……………………………………………… 59
第三章 研究設計與實施……………………………... 101
第一節 研究架構……………………………………………… 101
第二節 研究假設……………………………………………… 105
第三節 研究對象……………………………………………… 107
第四節 研究工具……………………………………………… 115
第五節 實施程序……………………………………………… 125
第六節 資料處理與分析……………………………………… 126
第四章 研究結果與討論……………………………... 129
第一節 國小新移民子女社會支持與幸福感之現況………… 129
第二節 不同背景變項在社會支持的差異分析……………… 135
第三節 不同背景變項在幸福感的差異分析………………… 148
第四節 國小新移民子女社會支持與幸福感之關係………… 160
第五節 國小新移民子女社會支持與幸福感之預測力……… 169
第六節 實證研究結果與討論............………………………… 171
第五章 結論與建議............…………………………………… 179
第一節 結論…………………………………………………… 179
第二節 建議…………………………………………………… 181
參考文獻…………………………………………………………… 185
中文部分………………………………………………………… 185
英文部分………………………………………………………… 197
附錄………………………………………………………………… 203
附錄一 正式問卷…………………………….………………… 203
附錄二 預試問卷…………………………….……………… 207
附錄三 專家審查問卷……………………….……………… 211
附錄四 專家學者意見調查彙整表…………………………… 219
附錄五 新移民子女社會支持量表學者專家效度統計表…… 226
附錄六 新移民子女幸福感量表學者專家效度統計表……… 227


表 次
表2-1 新移民子女就讀國民小學人數...………………………. 12
表2-2 歷年新移民子女出生數..………………………………… 13
表2-3 國內外學者對社會支持的定義…………………………… 19
表2-4 社會支持研究類型彙整表………………………………… 28
表2-5 社會支持觀點之彙整表…………………………………… 32
表2-6 幸福感之定義及相關名詞整理表………………………… 44
表2-7 國內外學者對幸福感的看法歸納表……………………… 45
表2-8 幸福感研究類型彙整表…………………………………… 47
表2-9 幸福感研究取向對照表…………………………………… 53
表2-10 國內新移民子女相關研究彙整表………………………… 59
表2-11 社會支持相關研究彙整表………………………………… 68
表2-12 幸福感相關研究類型彙整表……………………………… 76
表2-13 社會支持與幸福感相關研究彙整表……………………… 92
表3-1 父母親職業類表…………………………………………... 103
表3-2 班級數及新移民子女數 ......……………………………… 107
表3-3 預試問卷抽樣學校………………………………………... 108
表3-4 正式問卷樣本抽樣分配表………………………………... 110
表3-5 正式問卷抽樣名單………………………………………... 110
表3-6 研究對象基本資料分析表………………………………... 114
表3-7 社會支持研究構面………………………………………... 117
表3-8 幸福感研究構面…………………………………………... 119
表3-9 學者專家檢覈名單………………………………………… 120
表3-10 新移民子女社會支持量表預試信效度分析摘要表……... 122
表3-11 新移民子女幸福感量表預試信效度分析摘要表………... 124
表3-12 研究假設與資料處裡分析對應表………………………. .. 127
表4-1 國小新移民子女社會支持各題項平均數及其標準差…… 130
表4-2 國小新移民子女社會支持現況摘要表…………………… 131
表4-3 國小新移民子女幸福感各題項平均數及其標準差……… 132
表4-4 國小新移民子女國小新移民子女幸福感現況摘要表…… 133
表4-5 性別差異對社會支持各層面之t考驗摘要表…………… 136
表4-6 年級差異對社會支持各層面之t考驗摘要表…………… 137
表4-7 出生序別差異對社會支持各層面的變異數分析摘要表… 138
表4-8 家庭結構差異對社會支持各層面的變異數分析摘要表… 140
表4-9 母親國籍差異對社會支持各層面的變異數分析摘要表… 142
表4-10 父親職業差異對社會支持各層面的變異數分析摘要表… 144
表4-11 母親職業差異對社會支持各層面的變異數分析摘要表… 146
表4-12 不同背景變項新移民子女社會支持之差異分析摘要表… 147
表4-13 性別差異對幸福感各層面之t考驗摘要表……………… 149
表4-14 年級差異對幸福感各層面之t考驗摘要表……………… 150
表4-15 出生序別差異對幸福感各層面的變異數分析摘要表…… 151
表4-16 家庭結構差異對幸福感各層面的變異數分析摘要表…… 153
表4-17 母親國籍差異對幸福感各層面的變異數分析摘要表…… 155
表4-18 父親職業差異對幸福感各層面的變異數分析摘要表…… 157
表4-19 母親職業差異對幸福感各層面的變異數分析摘要表…… 158
表4-20 不同背景變項新移民子女幸福感之差異分析摘要表…… 159
表4-21 新移民子女社會支持與幸福感分量表之積差相關矩陣表 160
表4-22 社會支持與幸福感典型因素顯著性考驗摘要表………… 164
表4-23 新移民子女社會支持與幸福感之典型相關分析摘要表… 165
表4-24 以社會支持預測幸福感之變異數分析表………………… 169
表4-25 以社會支持預測幸福感之決定係數摘要表……………… 169
表4-26 以社會支持各層面對幸福感總量表多元迴歸分析摘要表 170
表4-27 不同背景變項對「社會支持」之t考驗摘要表………… 172
表4-28 不同背景變項對整體「社會支持」之變異數分析摘要表 172
表4-29 本研究基本變項對社會支持各層面考驗顯著性一覽表… 173
表4-30 不同背景變項對「幸福感」之t考驗摘要表…………… 175
表4-31 不同背景變項對整體「幸福感」之變異數分析摘要表… 175
表4-32 本研究基本變項對「幸福感」各層面考驗顯著性一覽表 176


圖 次
圖3-1 研究架構圖……..………………..................................... 102
圖4-1 新移民子女社會支持與幸福感典型相關分析徑路圖 167
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附註 etd-0714110-120608

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 4 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0017-0610201511040653
論文名稱(中文) 獨生子女自我概念與同儕關係之研究-以桃園縣國小學童為例
論文名稱(英文) The Study of Only Child’s Self-Concept and Peer Relationships: Elementary School Students in Taoyuan County as an Example
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 教育研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate School of Education
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 李玉玲
學號 9758619
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 157頁
指導教授 指導教授-張淑慧
關鍵字(中) 同儕關係
自我概念
獨生子女
關鍵字(英) only child
peer relationships
self-concept
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究旨在探討桃園縣國小獨生子女學童自我概念及同儕關係之關聯性,並比較獨生子女與非獨生子女之差異。本研究採問卷調查法進行研究,以桃園縣公立國小為研究範圍,根據學校規模與所在區域隨機抽取22所學校,共618位國小四、六年級學童進行施測,有效樣本數為570,有效回收率為92.2﹪。研究工具為自我概念量表以及同儕關係量表;研究資料分析採描述統計、t考驗、單因子變異數分析、皮爾森積差相關、典型相關以及階層迴歸等統計方法進行資料分析,獲得以下結論:
一、桃園縣國小四、六年級學童自我概念的現況在中等以上。
二、桃園縣國小四、六年級學童同儕關係的現況在中等以上。
三、不同年級、學校位置與家庭社經地位在整體自我概念上有顯著差異。
四、不同性別、學校位置與家庭社經地位在整體同儕關係上有顯著差異。
五、獨生子女與非獨生子女之整體自我概念並無顯著差異。
六、獨生子女與非獨生子女之整體同儕關係並無顯著差異。
七、國小學童之自我概念與同儕關係間具有顯著正相關。
八、國小學童之自我概念對同儕關係具有顯著預測力。
依據以上研究結論提出各項建議,以供教學輔導與未來研究之參考。

英文摘要 Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlations between children’s self-concept and peer relationships in Taoyuan county. In addition, the difference between only child and sibling child was also investigated. The valid return rate was 92.2 % and 570 4th and 6th grade students participated in the present study. The questionnaires were “The Elementary School Students’ Self-Concept Questionnaire” and “The Elementary School Students’ Peer Relationships Questionnaire”. The data were analyzed by using the statistical methods of descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s product-moment correlation, canonical correlation and hierarchical multiple regression. The major findings were as follows:
1. The students perceived middle to high level of their self-concept.
2. The students perceived middle to high level of their peer relationship.
3. The students with different grade, school location and social economical status showed significant differences in their self-concept.
4. The students with different grade, school location and social economical status showed significant differences in their peer relationships.
5. There were no significant differences between the only child and sibling child in terms of their self-concept.
6. There were no significant differences between the only child and sibling child in terms of their peer relationships.
7. There were significant correlations between self-concept and peer relationships.
8. Children’s self-concept could significantly predict their peer relationships.

Based on the conclusions mentioned above, suggestions for the educational administrations, schools, teachers, parents and future studies were presented.

論文目次 目 錄
中文摘要 ……………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要 ……………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
謝辭 …………………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
目錄 …………………………………………………………………………Ⅳ
表次 …………………………………………………………………………Ⅵ
圖次 …………………………………………………………………………Ⅷ
第一章 緒論 …………………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究動機 ……………………………………………………………1
第二節 研究目的 ……………………………………………………………5
第三節 研究問題 ……………………………………………………………6
第四節 名詞解釋 ……………………………………………………………7
第五節 研究範圍與限制 ……………………………………………………8
第二章 文獻探討 ……………………………………………………………9
第一節 獨生子女的特性 ……………………………………………………9
第二節 自我概念之理論與實徵研究 ……………………………………20
第三節 同儕關係之理論與實徵研究 ……………………………………37
第四節 自我概念與同儕關係之關聯性 …………………………………52
第三章 研究方法 …………………………………………………………55
第一節 研究架構 …………………………………………………………55
第二節 研究假設 …………………………………………………………56
第三節 研究對象 …………………………………………………………57
第四節 研究工具 …………………………………………………………58
第五節 實施程序 …………………………………………………………65
第六節 資料處理與統計分析 ……………………………………………67
第四章 研究結果 …………………………………………………………71
第一節 研究樣本基本資料分析 …………………………………………71
第二節 不同背景變項下國小學童自我概念之差異 ……………………75
第三節 不同背景變項下國小學童同儕關係之差異 ……………………81
第四節 獨生子女與非獨生子女自我概念之差異 ………………………87
第五節 獨生子女與非獨生子女同儕關係之差異 ………………………91
第六節 自我概念與同儕關係之相關分析 ………………………………95
第七節 自我概念對同儕關係之階層迴歸分析 …………………………99
第五章 討論 ……………………………………………………………101
第一節 國小學童自我概念與同儕關係之現況 …………………………101
第二節 不同背景變項下國小學童自我概念之比較 ……………………102
第三節 不同背景變項下國小學童同儕關係之比較 ……………………104
第四節 獨生子女與非獨生子女自我概念之比較 ………………………106
第五節 獨生子女與非獨生子女同儕關係之比較 ………………………108
第六節 自我概念與同儕關係相關之比較 ………………………………110
第七節 國小學童自我概念對同儕關係之預測 …………………………111
第六章 結論與建議 ………………………………………………………113
第一節 結論 ………………………………………………………………113
第二節 建議 ………………………………………………………………117
參考文獻 ……………………………………………………………………120
一、中文部分 ………………………………………………………………120
二、西文部分 ………………………………………………………………126
附錄
附錄一 專家效度評析問卷 ………………………………………………129
附錄二 「專家效度評析」問卷修正意見彙整表 ………………………134
附錄三 預試問卷 …………………………………………………………140
附錄四 正式問卷 …………………………………………………………144
附錄五 量表使用同意書 …………………………………………………148


表 次

表2-2-1 國內外學者自我概念理論架構 …………………………………26
表2-2-2 性別與自我概念之相關研究 ……………………………………29
表2-2-3 年級與自我概念之相關研究 ……………………………………31
表2-2-4 學校位置與自我概念之相關研究 ………………………………32
表2-2-5 家庭社經地位與自我概念之相關研究 …………………………34
表2-2-6 獨生子女與非獨生子女自我概念之相關研究 …………………35
表2-3-1 同儕關係之內涵 …………………………………………………39
表2-3-2 性別與同儕關係之相關研究 ……………………………………45
表2-3-3 年級與同儕關係之相關研究 ……………………………………46
表2-3-4 學校位置與同儕關係之相關研究 ………………………………47
表2-3-5 家庭社經地位與同儕關係之相關研究 …………………………48
表2-3-6 獨生子女與非獨生子女同儕關係之相關研究 …………………50
表2-4-1 自我概念與同儕關係之相關研究 ………………………………53
表3-3-1 分層隨機取樣一覽表 ……………………………………………57
表3-4-1 家庭社經地位等級區分表 ………………………………………59
表3-4-2 國小學童同儕關係預試問卷各分量表試題分析表………………60
表 3-4-3 學者專家意見調查名單 …………………………………………61
表3-4-4 國小學童同儕關係正式問卷各分量表試題分析表 ……………62
表3-4-5 「國小學童同儕關係問卷」信效度分析 …………………………62
表3-6-1 研究假設及資料分析方法一覽表 ………………………………68
表4-1-1 正式問卷調查樣本回收情形 ……………………………………71
表4-1-2 學童樣本結構分析表 ……………………………………………72
表4-1-3 國小兒童自我概念現況分析摘要表 ……………………………73
表4-1-4 國小學童同儕關係現況分析摘要表 ……………………………73
表4-2-1 不同性別國小學童自我概念之差異分析表 ……………………75
表4-2-2 不同年級國小學童自我概念之差異分析表 ……………………76
表4-2-3 不同學校位置國小學童自我概念之差異分析表 ………………77
表4-2-4 不同家庭社經地位國小學童自我概念之變異數分析摘要表 …78
表4-2-5 不同背景變項在自我概念各層面之差異比較摘要表 …………80
表4-3-1 不同性別國小學童同儕關係之差異分析表 ……………………81
表4-3-2 不同年級國小學童同儕關係之差異分析表 ……………………82
表4-3-3 不同學校位置國小學童同儕關係之差異分析表 ………………83
表4-3-4 不同家庭社經地位國小學童同儕關係之變異數分析摘要表 …84
表4-3-5 不同背景變項在同儕關係各層面之差異比較摘要表 …………85
表4-4-1 獨生子女與非獨生子女自我概念之差異分析表 ………………87
表4-4-2 不同性別獨生子女之自我概念差異分析表 ……………………88
表4-4-3 不同家庭社經地位之獨生子女在自我概念之變異數分析摘要表 89
表4-5-1 獨生子女與非獨生子女同儕關係之差異分析表 …………………91
表4-5-2 不同性別迪生子女在同儕關係上之差異分析表 …………………92
表4-5-3 不同家庭社經地位之獨生子女在同儕關係之變異數分析摘要表 93
表4-6-1 國小學童自我概念與同儕關係之相關情形摘要表 ………………95
表4-6-2 國小學童自我概念與同儕關係之典型相關因素顯著性考驗 ……96
表4-6-3 國小學童自我概念與同儕關係之典型相關分析摘要表 …………97
表4-7-1 影響同儕關係之階層迴歸分析 ……………………………………99
表6-1-1 研究假設及驗證結果………………………………………………113



圖 次

圖 2-2-1 Shavelson 等人的自我概念階層模式圖 ………………………23
圖 3-1-1 研究架構圖 …………………………………………………………55
圖 3-5-1 研究實施程序 ………………………………………………………65
圖 4-6-1 典型相關分析徑路圖 ………………………………………………98
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系統識別號 U0017-0610201511041460
論文名稱(中文) 以聚苯胺/銀奈米複合材料與苯胺寡聚物為有機發光二極體之電洞注入層的探討
論文名稱(英文) A study on organic light-emitting diodes with polyaniline/silver nanocomposite and oligomer of aniline as a hole injection layer
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 物理研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Physics
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 吳哲睿
學號 9762029
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 56頁
指導教授 指導教授-邱寬城
關鍵字(中) 有機發光二極體
表面改質
苯胺寡聚物
聚苯胺
電洞注入層
關鍵字(英) Surface modification
OLED
Oligomer
PANI
HIL
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究在有機發光二極體 (Organic light-emitting diode, OLED) 元件中,使用溶於NMP溶劑中的聚苯胺 (Polyaniline, PANI) 摻雜不同濃度之硝酸銀與苯胺寡聚物 (Oligomer of aniline) 共四種溶液旋轉塗佈於陽極上作為電洞注入層 (Hole injection layer, HIL)。由電流對電壓與光強度對電壓的量測結果可以得知PANI摻雜硝酸6% 與苯胺寡聚物兩種溶液旋轉塗佈於陽極上作為HIL,會使得元件整體效能有較大的提升,所以本研究利用下述量測方式來分析導致效能提升或降低(相較於沒有HIL之傳統結構元件)的機制為何。
藉由掃描式電子顯微鏡 (SEM) 之俯視圖來分析各種HIL之表面形貌是否有助於電荷傳遞,並由側視圖可以得到HIL之膜厚。
藉由原子力顯微鏡 (AFM) 來分析各種HIL之表面粗糙度來判斷哪種HIL 與電洞傳輸層 (Hole transport layer, HTL) 間有較好的接合面,同時好的接合面也意味著電洞由HIL注入到HTL有較好的注入效率,並使得元件整體效能提升。
藉由X光粉晶繞射儀 (XRD) 來觀測PANI摻雜硝酸銀的粉末溶於NMP並利用旋轉塗佈於陽極上成膜後,薄膜中是否仍有奈米銀顆粒存在,以探討奈米銀顆粒對於電荷傳導機制的影響,進而影響到元件整體的效能。
藉由光穿透頻譜來觀測經過HIL表面改質後之陽極透光率;因為透光率會直接影響到元件的光強度,從而影響到元件的發光效率。

英文摘要 In this study, there are four solutions fabricated by polyaniline (PANI) doped with different concentration of silver nitrate and aniline of oligomer which are respective dissolved in the solvent of NMP. These solutions are spin-coat on the anode of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) as a hole injection layer (HIL). Through the results of measuring the current density versus voltage and the EL intensity versus voltage, it shows a significant increase of OLED device’s performance when the solutions of PANI doped with silver nitrate 6% and aniline of oligomer are spin-coated as a HIL. There are some measurements to analyze the mechanism of the OLED device’s performance is increasing or decreasing which are below this paragraph.
Through scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyzes the morphology of top view of the different HIL whether contribute to charge transport. And the thickness could be taken by the side view of the different HIL.
Through atomic force microscopy (AFM) to analyzes the surface roughness of different HIL. Then we can discern which one of the HILs provided with the better contact of the interface between the HIL and hole transport layer (HTL). And the better contact of the interface implies that there is a hole injection from HIL to HTL has higher injection efficiency.
Through X-ray diffraction to observe the powder of PANI doped with different concentration of silver nitrate dissolved in the solvent of NMP which spin-coating on the anode. To discuss whether the thin film on anode possess of nano-silver granule, then we may discuss the nano-silver granule whether play an important role in the charge transport mechanism.
Through optical transmission to observe the transmissivity of the anode after surface modification. Because of the transmissivity will affect the light-emitting intensity immediately.

論文目次 中文摘要……………………………………………………………….………… I
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………………. II
誌謝…………………………………………………………………..................... III
目錄……….…………….….…….………………...………….…….…………… IV
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………………......VI
表目錄…………………………………………………………………………..... VIII
第一章 簡介………….……………………………………………….................. 1
1.1 前言…………………....……………………………………..…………… 1
1.2 有機電致螢光概述…....……………………………………..…………… 2
1.3 有機發光二極體原理....……………………………………..…………… 4
1.4 OLED元件電流限制....……………………………………..…………… 8
1.5 ITO陽極表面改質……………………………………………………….. 11
第二章 實驗原理與方法….…………………………………………………….. 12
2.1 物理汽相沉積法概述...………………………………..…………………. 12
2.2 旋轉塗佈法概述………………………………………..………………… 12
2.3 聚苯胺/銀粉末製備……………………………………………………… 13
2.4 聚苯胺/銀粉末條件參數的定義……………………………………….... 13
2.5 實驗裝置與樣品製備…………………………………………………..… 14
2.6 J-V與EL-V量測…………………………………………………………. 20
2.7 光穿透頻譜量測……………………………………………………….…. 22
第三章 結果與討論………………………………………..….………………… 24
3.1 電流密度對電壓與光度對電壓作圖之分析…………………………….. 24
3.2 電洞注入層之表面形貌分析…………………………………………...... 32
3.3 XRD之結果分析…………………...……………..……………………... 40
3.4 光穿透頻譜分析......…………………………………………………..…. 42
第四章 結論與未來展望……………………………………………………..… 44
參考文獻…………………………….……………………………….….……....... 46





圖目錄
圖 1.1 2006-2016 OLED 面板出貨金額預測(單位:百萬美元)。................. 3
圖1.2 (a) Anthracene分子結構圖,(b) 芳香雙胺化物 (Aromatic diamine) 結構
圖,(c) Alq3 之結構圖,(d) 柯達公司所發明之雙層異質結構的有機薄膜
元件示意圖。.............................................................................................. 5
圖1.3.1 OLED雙層結構發光原理示意圖。....................................................... 6
圖1.3.2 OLED發光機制的兩種類型。............................................................... 7
圖1.4 (a) Richardson-Schottky熱注入理論模型,(b) Fowler-Nordheim穿隧理論
模型。......................................................................................................... 10
圖2.5.1 (a) 蒸鍍腔體內部構造示意圖,(b) 放置ITO玻璃基板之基座示意圖。
(1) 基座放置凹槽;(2) MASK旋轉盤;(3) 基板端大擋板;(4) 粉末端
小擋板;(5) 坩鍋;(6) 加熱絲。......................................................... 17
圖2.5.2 本實驗之元件架構圖。......................................................................... 18
圖2.5.3 (a) Alq3分子結構圖,(b) NPB分子結構圖,(c) Oligomer分子結構圖。
………………………………………………………………………… 19
圖2.6 J-V與EL-V量測系統架構圖。............................................................... 21
圖2.7 光穿透量測系統架構圖。…………………………………………….... 23
圖3.1.1 Conventional元件之 (a) J-V 與 (b) EL-V Semi-log作圖。…….... 25
圖3.1.2 Ag (0%) 元件之 (a) J-V 與 (b) EL-V Semi-log作圖。………….. 26
圖3.1.3 Ag (6%) 元件之 (a) J-V 與 (b) EL-V Semi-log作圖。…………. 27
圖3.1.4 Ag (12%) 元件之 (a) J-V 與 (b) EL-V Semi-log作圖。……....... 28
圖3.1.5 Oligomer元件之 (a) J-V 與 (b) EL-V Semi-log作圖。…………. 29
圖3.1.6 五種元件數據合併之 (a) J-V 與 (b) EL-V 作圖。………………... 30
圖3.1.7 五種元件數據合併之 (a) J-V 與 (b) EL-V Semi-log作圖。……. 31
圖3.2.1 五種不同樣品之SEM俯視圖分別為:(a) 無塗佈之ITO,(b) Ag (0%),
(c) Ag (6%),(d) Ag (12%),(e) Oligomer樣品1,(f) Oligomer樣品2。
(附註:(a) 之比例尺為50 nm,(b)-(e) 之比例尺為200 nm,(f) 之比
例尺為500 nm。)………………………………………………….. 35
圖3.2.2 五種不同樣品之AFM圖分別為:(a) ITO,(b) Ag (0%),(c) Ag (6%),
(d) Ag (12%),(e) Oligomer。…………………………………......... 36
圖3.2.3 Ag (0%)、Ag (6%) 及Ag (12%) 之SEM側視圖:(a) Ag (0%) 樣品1,
(b) Ag (0%) 樣品2,(c) Ag (6%) 樣品1,(d) Ag (6%) 樣品2,(e) Ag
(12%) 樣品1,(f) Ag (12%) 樣品2。……………………………… 37
圖3.2.4 (a) SEM側視圖出現異常白色光團 (比例尺500 nm),(b) SEM側視圖
出現異常白色光團 (比例尺 1 μm),(c) Oligomer之SEM側視圖。
……………………………………………………………………….. 39
圖3.3 PANI摻雜硝酸銀6% 與12% 之較高轉速與較低轉速的XRD頻譜圖。
………………………………………………………………………….. 41
圖3.4 光穿透頻譜(波長範圍500-570 nm)。……………………………… 43


表目錄
表一 SEM俯視圖之區塊與團簇的表面覆蓋率。……................................... 38
表二 由AFM所得之表面粗糙度。……………………………………….… 38
表三 由SEM所得之兩個樣品的ITO與HIL平均薄膜厚度。…………… 38
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附註 etd-0908110-154911

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 6 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0017-0610201511041563
論文名稱(中文) 結合Hilbert-Huang轉換及階次跟蹤之故障診斷方法
論文名稱(英文) Combine Hilbert-Huang Transform and Order Tracking Analysis in Fault Diagnosis
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 機械工程研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Mechanical Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 林忠賢
學號 9773038
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 102頁
指導教授 指導教授-康淵
指導教授-張永鵬
關鍵字(中) 故障診斷
階次跟蹤
瞬時頻率
Hilbert-Huang 轉換
經驗模態分解
關鍵字(英) Fault diagnosis
Instantaneous Frequency
Empirical Mode Decomposition
Hilbert-Huang Transform
Order Tracking
學科別分類
中文摘要 本文針對行星齒輪減速機進行故障分析之探討,由於齒輪升降速階段是一種非平穩過程,無法符合傅立葉轉換對信號的平穩性要求,因此,不能用常規的頻譜分析方法進行分析處理,於是本文使用基於Hilbert-Huang轉換的階次跟蹤方法來對非平穩信號進行分析。首先對振動信號進行經驗模態分解得到信號的固有模態函數,再求各個固有模態函數Hilbert轉換,得到信號的瞬時頻率,進而求得脈衝信號對應到振動信號之再採樣時間,根據此再採樣時間對原始信號進行等角度重採樣,最後對重採樣信號進行階次跟蹤分析。模擬信號與實例分析驗證了該方法的正確性與可靠性。
英文摘要 The paper applies the planet gear deceleration machine for fault diagnosis analysis of study, Because of the gear rises to change down the stage is one kind of unsteady process, is unable to conform to Fourier to transform to the signal stable request, therefore, cannot use conventional the spectral analysis method to carry on the analysis processing, so this use of order tracking based on Hilbert-Huang transform method to analyze unsteady signal. At first carries on the experience modality decomposition to the vibration signal to obtain the signal inherent modality function, Then obtained for each intrinsic mode function of the
received signal after Hilbert transform instantaneous frequency, and then obtains the signal impulse to correspond the vibration signal the resampled time, according to this resampled time to the original signal carries on resampled in angle-domain, finally using order tracking to analyze resampling signal. The simulated signal and the example analysis has confirmed this method accuracy and the reliability.
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
一、導論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 文獻回顧 1
1.3 研究方法 2
1.4 本文大綱 3
二、Hilbert-Huang轉換 4
2.1原理 4
2.2 經驗模態分解方法 4
2.3 Hilbert轉換 13
三、階次跟蹤 15
3.1 原理 15
3.2 角域再採樣方法 16
3.3使用Matlab之階次跟蹤計算流程 21
四、HHT與階次跟蹤之結合 24
4.1基於HHT計算瞬時頻率的再採樣時間 24
4.2階次角域再採樣方法 26
五、信號模擬分析 28
5.1 餘弦函數信號模擬 28
5.2 餘弦函數之Hilbert-Huang轉換 30
5.3餘弦函數信號之階次跟蹤分析 32
六、實例分析 35
6.1實驗目的 35
6.2實驗設備 35
6.3實驗說明 36
6.4實驗分析 39
6.4.1 正常狀態 39
6.4.1葉片輪質量偏心狀態 58
6.5實驗分析結果討論 78
七、結論 80
參考文獻 81
附錄一 三次樣條(cubic spline) 83
個人簡介 88

圖目錄
圖2.1 Hilbert-Huang轉換流程 4
圖2.2時域信號EMD分解說明 10
圖2.3 經驗模態分解計算流程 12
圖3.1 階次跟蹤流程 15
圖3.2 振動信號等角度再採樣時間關係(a) 脈衝信號時間(脈衝數= ) 19
圖3.2 振動信號等角度再採樣時間關係(b)振動信號 19
圖3.3 再採樣之線性插值法 20
圖3.4 使用Matlab之階次跟蹤計算流程 23
圖4.1 HHT結合階次跟蹤分析之流程 27
圖5.1 模擬信號 29
圖5.2 模擬信號之頻譜 29
圖5.3 模擬信號之各IMF分量 31
圖5.4 模擬信號之瞬時頻率 31
圖5.5 模擬信號之瞬時頻率修正 32
圖5.6 模擬信號之角域重採樣 33
圖5.7 模擬信號之階次譜 33
圖5.8模擬信號之轉速階次譜 34
圖5.9模擬信號之時頻譜 34
圖6.1實驗設備架構 35
圖6.2正常狀態之原始時域信號 39
圖6.3正常狀態之脈衝信號 39
圖6.4正常狀態之轉速信號 40
圖6.5正常狀態0秒到8秒第1個IMF之時域信號 40
圖6.6正常狀態0秒到8秒第2個IMF之時域信號 40
圖6.7正常狀態0秒到8秒第3個IMF之時域信號 40
圖6.8正常狀態0秒到8秒第4個IMF之時域信號 41
圖6.9正常狀態0秒到8秒第5個IMF之時域信號 41
圖6.10正常狀態0秒到8秒第6個IMF之時域信號 41
圖6.11正常狀態0秒到8秒第7個IMF之時域信號 41
圖6.12正常狀態0秒到8秒第8個IMF之時域信號 41
圖6.13正常狀態0秒到8秒第1個IMF之瞬時頻率 42
圖6.14正常狀態0秒到8秒第2個IMF之瞬時頻率 42
圖6.15正常狀態0秒到8秒第3個IMF之瞬時頻率 42
圖6.16正常狀態0秒到8秒第4個IMF之瞬時頻率 42
圖6.17正常狀態0秒到8秒第5個IMF之瞬時頻率 43
圖6.18正常狀態0秒到8秒第6個IMF之瞬時頻率 43
圖6.19正常狀態0秒到8秒第7個IMF之瞬時頻率 43
圖6.20正常狀態0秒到8秒第8個IMF之瞬時頻率 43
圖6.21正常狀態0秒到8秒第1個IMF之瞬時振幅 44
圖6.22正常狀態0秒到8秒第2個IMF之瞬時振幅 44
圖6.23正常狀態0秒到8秒第3個IMF之瞬時振幅 44
圖6.24正常狀態0秒到8秒第4個IMF之瞬時振幅 44
圖6.25正常狀態0秒到8秒第5個IMF之瞬時振幅 45
圖6.26正常狀態0秒到8秒第6個IMF之瞬時振幅 45
圖6.27正常狀態0秒到8秒第7個IMF之瞬時振幅 45
圖6.28正常狀態0秒到8秒第8個IMF之瞬時振幅 45
圖6.29正常狀態0秒到8秒之HHT時頻譜 46
圖6.30正常狀態原使信號2.5秒到3秒之時域 46
圖6.31正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第1個IMF之時域信號 47
圖6.32正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第1個IMF之瞬時頻率 47
圖6.33正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第1個IMF之角域再採樣信號 47
圖6.34正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第1個IMF之階次譜 47
圖6.35正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第1個IMF之轉速階次譜 47
圖6.36正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第2個IMF之時域信號 48
圖6.37正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第2個IMF之瞬時頻率 48
圖6.38正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第2個IMF之角域再採樣信號 48
圖6.39正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第2個IMF之階次譜 48
圖6.40正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第2個IMF之轉速階次譜 48
圖6.41正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第3個IMF之時域信號 49
圖6.42正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第3個IMF之瞬時頻率 49
圖6.43正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第3個IMF之角域再採樣信號 49
圖6.44正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第3個IMF之階次譜 49
圖6.45正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第3個IMF之轉速階次譜 49
圖6.46正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第4個IMF之時域信號 50
圖6.47正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第4個IMF之瞬時頻率 50
圖6.48正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第4個IMF之角域再採樣信號 50
圖6.49正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第4個IMF之階次譜 50
圖6.50正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第4個IMF之轉速階次譜 50
圖6.51正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第5個IMF之時域信號 51
圖6.52正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第5個IMF之瞬時頻率 51
圖6.53正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第5個IMF之角域再採樣信號 51
圖6.54正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第5個IMF之階次譜 51
圖6.55正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第5個IMF之轉速階次譜 51
圖6.56正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第6個IMF之時域信號 52
圖6.57正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第6個IMF之瞬時頻率 52
圖6.58正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第6個IMF之角域再採樣信號 52
圖6.59正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第6個IMF之階次譜 52
圖6.60正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第6個IMF之轉速階次譜 52
圖6.61正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第7個IMF之時域信號 53
圖6.62正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第7個IMF之瞬時頻率 53
圖6.63正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第7個IMF之角域再採樣信號 53
圖6.64正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第7個IMF之階次譜 53
圖6.65正常狀態2.5秒到3秒第7個IMF之轉速階次譜 53
圖6.66正常狀態2.5秒到3秒之角域再採樣信號 54
圖6.67正常狀態2.5秒到3秒之階次譜 54
圖6.68正常狀態2.5秒到3秒HHT時頻譜 55
圖6.69正常狀態第2.55秒之頻譜 55
圖6.70正常狀態第2.95秒之頻譜 56
圖6.71正常狀態2.5秒到3秒之時間階次譜 56
圖6.72正常狀態2.5秒到3秒之轉速階次譜 57
圖6.73正常狀態第2.55秒之階次譜 57
圖6.74正常狀態2.95秒之階次譜 58
圖6.75偏心狀態之原始時域信號 58
圖6.76偏心狀態之脈衝信號 59
圖6.77偏心狀態之轉速信號 59
圖6.78偏心狀態0秒到8秒第1個IMF之時域信號 60
圖6.79偏心狀態0秒到8秒第2個IMF之時域信號 60
圖6.80偏心狀態0秒到8秒第3個IMF之時域信號 60
圖6.81偏心狀態0秒到8秒第4個IMF之時域信號 60
圖6.82偏心狀態0秒到8秒第5個IMF之時域信號 61
圖6.83偏心狀態0秒到8秒第6個IMF之時域信號 61
圖6.84偏心狀態0秒到8秒第7個IMF之時域信號 61
圖6.85偏心狀態0秒到8秒第8個IMF之時域信號 61
圖6.86偏心狀態0秒到8秒第1個IMF之瞬時頻率 62
圖6.87偏心狀態0秒到8秒第2個IMF之瞬時頻率 62
圖6.88偏心狀態0秒到8秒第3個IMF之瞬時頻率 62
圖6.89偏心狀態0秒到8秒第4個IMF之瞬時頻率 62
圖6.90偏心狀態0秒到8秒第5個IMF之瞬時頻率 63
圖6.91偏心狀態0秒到8秒第6個IMF之瞬時頻率 63
圖6.92偏心狀態0秒到8秒第7個IMF之瞬時頻率 63
圖6.93偏心狀態0秒到8秒第8個IMF之瞬時頻率 63
圖6.94偏心狀態0秒到8秒第1個IMF之瞬時振幅 64
圖6.95偏心狀態0秒到8秒第2個IMF之瞬時振幅 64
圖6.96偏心狀態0秒到8秒第3個IMF之瞬時振幅 64
圖6.97偏心狀態0秒到8秒第4個IMF之瞬時振幅 64
圖6.98偏心狀態0秒到8秒第5個IMF之瞬時振幅 65
圖6.99偏心狀態0秒到8秒第6個IMF之瞬時振幅 65
圖6.100偏心狀態0秒到8秒第7個IMF之瞬時振幅 65
圖6.101偏心狀態0秒到8秒第8個IMF之瞬時振幅 65
圖6.102偏心狀態0秒到8秒之HHT時頻譜 66
圖6.103偏心狀態原使信號3.9秒到4.4秒之時域 66
圖6.104偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第1個IMF之時域信號 67
圖6.105偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第1個IMF之瞬時頻率 67
圖6.106偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第1個IMF之角域再採樣信號 67
圖6.107偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第1個IMF之階次譜 67
圖6.108偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第1個IMF之轉速階次譜 67
圖6.109偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第2個IMF之時域信號 68
圖6.110偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第2個IMF之瞬時頻率 68
圖6.111偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第2個IMF之角域再採樣信號 68
圖6.112偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第2個IMF之階次譜 68
圖6.113偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第2個IMF之轉速階次譜 68
圖6.114偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第3個IMF之時域信號 69
圖6.115偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第3個IMF之瞬時頻率 69
圖6.116偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第3個IMF之角域再採樣信號 69
圖6.117偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第3個IMF之階次譜 69
圖6.118偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第3個IMF之轉速階次譜 69
圖6.119偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第4個IMF之時域信號 70
圖6.120偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第4個IMF之瞬時頻率 70
圖6.121偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第4個IMF之角域再採樣信號 70
圖6.122偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第4個IMF之階次譜 70
圖6.123偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第4個IMF之轉速階次譜 70
圖6.124偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第5個IMF之時域信 71
圖6.125偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第5個IMF之瞬時頻率 71
圖6.126偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第5個IMF之角域再採樣信號 71
圖6.127偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第5個IMF之階次譜 71
圖6.128偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第5個IMF之轉速階次譜 71
圖6.129偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第6個IMF之時域信號 72
圖6.130偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第6個IMF之瞬時頻率 72
圖6.131偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第6個IMF之角域再採樣信號 72
圖6.132偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第6個IMF之階次譜 72
圖6.133偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第6個IMF之轉速階次譜 72
圖6.134偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第7個IMF之時域信號 73
圖6.135偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第7個IMF之瞬時頻率 73
圖6.136偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第7個IMF之角域再採樣信號 73
圖6.137偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第7個IMF之階次譜 73
圖6.138偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒第7個IMF之轉速階次譜 73
圖6.139偏心狀態4秒到4.5秒之角域再採樣信號 74
圖6.140偏心狀態4秒到4.5秒之階次譜 74
圖6.141偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒之HHT時頻譜 75
圖6.142偏心狀態第3.95秒之頻譜 75
圖6.143偏心狀態第4.35秒之頻譜 76
圖6.144偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒之時間階次譜 76
圖6.145偏心狀態3.9秒到4.4秒之轉速階次譜 77
圖6.146偏心狀態第3.95秒之階次譜 77
圖6.147偏心狀態第4.35秒之階次譜 78
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附註 etd-0908110-202439

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 7 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0017-0610201511103337
論文名稱(中文) 遊戲式學習活動產生機制─自閉症兒童日常生活訓練遊戲
論文名稱(英文) Game-base Activity of Daily Life Generation for Children with Autism
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Information and Computer Engineering
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 呂俊緯
學號 9677011
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期
論文頁數 98頁
指導教授 指導教授-賀嘉生
關鍵字(中) 自閉症
語意理解能力
情境遊戲
情境學習
卡片教學
輕中度自閉症兒童
學習興趣
關鍵字(英) PECS
interesting
mild/moderate ASD children
sentence comprehension
situated game
TEACCH
Autism Spectrum Disorder
學科別分類
中文摘要 在現今的社會中,自閉症的人數越來越多,根據統計,台灣去年的自閉症人數比前年成長了近11%,因此自閉症的教育也越來越受到重視,也越來越多教育學者開始研究如何教育自閉症的兒童,因為一般來說,自閉症在三歲前就可以診斷出來,而接受治療能夠得到最佳成效的時期也是三歲之前,但不是所有自閉兒童都可以在三歲之前能改善到正常小孩差不多的程度,所以三歲之後如何從教育中改善自閉症兒童得異常行為或者改善他們的能力,也是很多學者所關注的。

自閉症的類型以及症狀每個人都不全相同,在自閉症的教育中,最常見的為使用卡片教學(PECS)配合教材教導自閉症兒童如何使用圖片跟別人做溝通,或者在教室中建立情境學習的環境(TEACCH),教導自閉症兒童一些日常生活中可能從事的活動,或者用團體活動讓自閉症兒童習慣與人接觸相處,近年來,隨著電腦以及遊戲式學習的發展,自閉症的教育學者也開始研究如何使用電腦輔助自閉症兒童學習各種不同方向的教材,提升自閉症兒童對學習的興趣以及專注力。

本論文設計了一個情境遊戲,使用日常生活中真實的圖片搭配不同的活動,讓使用者能夠有操作真實生活中物品的感覺,並且搭配文字題目,使用者透過閱讀並了解文字意思後,再進行相對應的電腦操作,希望藉此改善自閉症兒童的語意理解能力,本論文針對輕度以及中度自閉症兒童進行了兩個禮拜的實驗,於文中根據自閉症兒童的操作記錄做詳細的分析,並且透過問卷跟訪談探討此系統對兒童跟家人得接受程度兒童跟家人得接受程度,以及是否可以提升自閉症兒童的學習興趣,並間接提升兒童學習成效。

英文摘要 In recent society, there are more and more Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) patients. According to statistics, the ASD population in Taiwan last year grew up eleven percents than the year before last. So, more and more educators focus on the ASD education. ASD education also becomes more important. Most Autism Spectrum Disorder patients could be diagnosed and could get great improvement through treatment and training before three years old. Not all ASD children could get great improvement degree to be like a normal child before three years old. So, the education of ASD children after three year-old is also respected by many educators.

Types and symptoms of ASD are different for each patient. In ASD education, the common method is using cards and materials to teach ASD patients how to use cards to communicate with others. The other common method is arranging classroom environment to teach ASD patients activities like in the daily life or use group activities to teach them social interaction. In recent years through the development of computer and game-based learning, ASD educators also start to investigate how to use computer to teach ASD patients and enhance their interesting/attention.

This paper designs a situated game. This game uses real-world pictures to make children feel like in real-world, and this game also accompanies sentences (quests) with activities to train patients’ sentence comprehension ability. ASD patients must understand the sentences and do the activities. This paper focuses on mild/moderate ASD children and proceeds two weeks experiments. This paper also analyzes records of all participants and discusses acceptation degree of ASD children/family members through the questionnaires’ data. The result shows that the situated game could enhance ASD children’s learning interesting and improvement.

論文目次 INDEX
中文摘要 I
Abstract II
謝誌 III
INDEX IV
FIGURE INDEX VI
TABLE INDEX VIII
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Goals and Contributions 2
1.3 Chapter Description 2
2. Research Background 4
2.1 Autism Spectrum Disorder 4
2.1.1 Social development 4
2.1.2 Communication 4
2.1.3 Stereotypical behavior 5
2.1.4 Repetitive behavior 6
2.1.5 Restrict interest 6
2.1.6 Others 7
2.2 The education/treatment of the ASD 7
2.2.1 Picture Exchange Communication System 7
2.2.2 TEACCH 8
2.2.3 The SCERTS model 10
2.2.4 Others 11
2.3 Computer learning in education/treatment of ASD 11
2.4 Game-based Learning 13
2.5 Knowledge Structure 14
3. Situated Game Design 16
3.1 Activity Design 16
3.1.1 Flow Control 16
3.1.2 Activity’s Processes Status 18
3.1.3 Activity Time Setting 19
3.2 Generate Time Weight 21
3.3 Object Factor 21
3.4 Activity Generating 23
4. Analyze and Diagnose User Records 36
4.1 User’s Operation Log Design 36
4.2 Analyze User Records’ Rules 37
4.3 Calculate Concept Weight 40
4.4 Example of Concept/Misconcept Weight Calculating 46
5. Data Analysis and Discussion 51
5.1 Experiment Design 51
5.2 Quantitative Analysis 55
5.3 Qualitative Analysis 60
6. Conclusions 65
6.1 Summary 65
6.2 Future Work 66
Reference 67
Appendix 74
Appendix 1: Guardian letter of consent 74
Appendix 2: Computer Attitude and Computer Background Questionnaire 75
Appendix 3: TAM Questionnaires 84
Appendix 4: Predict User A and B’s Answer 89
Appendix 5: Predict User C and D’s Answer 90


FIGURE INDEX
Figure 1: An example of concept map 14
Figure 2: An example of hierarchy knowledge map 15
Figure 3: Context-awareness knowledge structure 15
Figure 4: Arranged time table for daily life activities 17
Figure 5: FSM of daily life activities from Figure 4 18
Figure 6: process’s status 19
Figure 7: activity’s time distribution 19
Figure 8: Situated Game’s knowledge structure 20
Figure 9: Rough Set of the situated game’s activities 22
Figure 10: Judgment Flow 23
Figure 11: Rough Set of “Eat breakfast” 25
Figure 12: rough set of “Prepare cutlery” 26
Figure 13: rough set of “Clean table” 26
Figure 14: rough set of “Order Cutlery” 27
Figure 15: rough set of “Eat Western style lunch” 28
Figure 16: Random activities 30
Figure 17: Choose activity on weekday (Type 1) 31
Figure 18: Choose activity on weekday (Type 2) 31
Figure 19: Choose activity on weekend (Type 3) 32
Figure 20: Choose activity on festival (Type 4) 32
Figure 21: Type 2 of generating activity sentence 33
Figure 22: Type 3 of generating activity sentence 34
Figure 23: Type 4 of generating activity sentence 34
Figure 24: Flow transformation 34
Figure 25: Activity transformed animation 35
Figure 26: Flow of System 37
Figure 27: Example of user record 37
Figure 28: Steps of a question’s operation 40
Figure 29: Different number of factors’ weight 42
Figure 30: ROC method in this research 42
Figure 31: Function flow 46
Figure 32: Part of participant A’s records 46
Figure 33: Welcome picture 51
Figure 34: Choosing picture 51
Figure 35: Game environment 52
Figure 36: Three areas’ region 53
Figure 37: Four types’ button 53
Figure 38: Analyze data by Matlab 59

TABLE INDEX
Table 1: Definition of Rough Set 22
Table 2: Random Game Information 24
Table 3: activities’ time setting 24
Table 4: activities’ time weight 24
Table 5: “Prepare cutlery” weight 26
Table 6: Add “Clean table” weight 27
Table 7: Add “Order cutlery” weight 28
Table 8: “Eat breakfast” weight 28
Table 9: all processes’ weight 29
Table 10: Record of each user 36
Table 11: Example of regular expression 38
Table 12: Background of participants 54
Table 13 : results of pre-test and post-test 56
Table 14: Total score of TAM questionnaires 56
Table 15: Questions for perceived usefulness 57
Table 16: Questions for perceived ease of use 57
Table 17: Questions for perceived enjoyment 57
Table 18: Questions for social influence 58
Table 19: Result of computer anxiety questionnaire 58
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系統識別號 U0017-1201201116002564
論文名稱(中文) 注意力缺陷過動症兒童之自我知覺研究
論文名稱(英文) Self-Perception of Children with ADHD
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 心理學研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Psychology
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 蘇邦礎
學號 9564610
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 125頁
指導教授 指導教授-譚偉象
關鍵字(中) 自我知覺
ADHD兒童
正向錯覺偏差
關鍵字(英) Children with ADHD
positive illusions
self-perception
學科別分類
中文摘要 中文摘要:
本研究的目的在於使用Harter的兒童自我知覺量表來檢驗ADHD兒童的自我知覺。主要區分以兒童自評的自我知覺分數以及運用以家長客評的自我知覺分數當基礎的效標差距分數,來做不同層面的探討。同時將憂鬱共病、攻擊傾向這兩項因素當成控制變項,藉以控制這兩個變項的影響力後,檢驗ADHD兒童自我知覺的正向錯覺偏差的特性。
本研究的對象皆是經由醫院醫生確診為ADHD兒童,其有效樣本數為44名,控制組的兒童皆自同年齡層的對象予以篩選,其有效樣本數為48名。研究工具為台灣版兒童青少年憂鬱量表、國小兒童自我知覺量表—家長版、國小兒童自我知覺量表—兒童版以及兒童行為檢核量表。在統計方法上則使用變異數、共變數和相關分析來進行研究假設的檢定。
研究結果顯示:(1)從兒童的自我知覺自評分數得到結果,ADHD兒童在學業能力、行為表現二項自我知覺分量尺的得分皆顯著低於控制組兒童,在體育能力這項自我知覺分量尺的得分顯著高於控制組兒童,在身體外貌、社會接納以及整體自我這三項自我知覺分量尺上與控制組兒童沒有任何顯著差異。(2)從兒童的自我知覺效標差距分數得到的結果,除了在身體外貌這項自我知覺向度,ADHD兒童與控制組兒童在得分上沒有任何顯著差距外,在其餘的學業能力、體育能力、行為表現以及社會接納四項自我知覺的向度上,ADHD兒童皆顯著高於控制組兒童。(3)ADHD兒童在自我知覺上具有較為高估的正向錯覺偏差特性。


英文摘要 ABSTRACT
The research used Harter’s Self-Perception Profile for Children to examine the self perception of children with ADHD to investigate the differences between the scores reported by the children and the criterion-difference scores based on the parent-rated perceptions. Depression and aggression were controlled in order to clarify the positive illusion of the self-perception of children with ADHD.
Forty-four children with ADHD diagnosis confirmed by psychiatrists were recruited. Forty-eight children with compatible age were also recruited as the control group. The research instruments included the Children’s Depression Inventory (Taiwan version), Self-Perception Profile for Children, Self-Perception Profile for Children (Parents version), and the Child Behavior Checklist. The statistical methods of MANOVA, ANCOVA, and correlation were used to test the hypotheses.
The results were as follows: (1) With regard to the self-report of the children with ADHD, the scores on Scholastic Competence and Behavioral Conduct were lower than that of the control group, while for the scores of Athletic Competence, the opposite was true. There were no significant differences between the two groups on the scores of Physical Appearance, Social Acceptance, and Global Self-Worth; (2) With regard to the criterion-difference scores of the self-perception of the children with ADHD, the scores on Scholastic Competence, Athletic Competence, Behavioral Conduct, and Social Acceptance were higher than that of the control group, while there was no significant difference between the two groups on the scores of Physical Appearance; and (3) Children with ADHD had high positive illusions in self-perception.


論文目次 目錄
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………………………….I
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………………………II
謝誌………………………………………………………………………………………...III
目錄……………………………………………………………………………………..….IV
表次………………………………………………………………………………………...VI
圖次…………………………………………………………………………………………IX
附錄…………………………………………………………………………………………IX
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機……………………………………………………………..………1
第二節 注意力缺陷過動症………………………………………………….………4
第三節 自我知覺的理論…………………………………………….……………..16
第四節 注意力缺陷過動症兒童的自我知覺…………….…………….………….25
第五節 研究目的和研究假設……………………………………….……………..48
第二章 研究方法
第一節 研究對象和研究程序………………………………………..……………..52
第二節 研究工具……………………………………………..……………………..58
第三章 研究結果
第一節 兩組樣本在自我知覺的各量尺上的差異分析………………………....72
第二節 不同共病狀況的ADHD兒童對自我知覺的影響………………..…….75
第三節 ADHD兒童的攻擊傾向與變項間的相關性分析………………………89
第四章 討論
第一節 ADHD兒童自我知覺的主要特質探討…………………..……………..94
第二節 ADHD兒童自我知覺的其它特質探討………………………….……...96
第三節 自我知覺的正向錯覺偏差對ADHD兒童的影響…………………..….98
第四節 自我知覺的正向錯覺偏差對ADHD兒童在治療上的意義………..…100
第五節 研究方法上的討論………………………………………….…………...102
第六節 研究限制…………………………………………………….……………103
第七節 未來方向……………………………………………………….…………104
參考文獻
  中文部份:…………………………………………………..…………………..106
英文部份:………………………………………………………………………109
表次
表1:DSM-IV中對注意力缺失/過動疾患(Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder)的診斷準則……………………………………………………………………………6
表2:ADHD名詞的演變…………………………………………………………………8
表3:自我知覺發展基準表………………………………………………………………24
表4:ADHD組與控制組在年級上的分佈統計………………………………………..56
表5:ADHD組與控制組在年齡變項的差異摘要表…………………………………..56
表6:ADHD組與控制組在家庭型態與雙親教育程度分佈…………………………..57
表7:ADHD組與控制組在注意力問題、注意力缺陷/過動分量尺上的得分差異摘要表……………………………………………………………………………………58
表8:原題目及分量尺…………………………………………………………………….62
表9:預試有效樣本數……………………………………………………………………62
表10:KMO and Bartlett’s 檢定…………………………………………………………..63
表11:解說總變異量……………………………………………………………………….63
表12:轉軸後的成份矩陣………………………………………………………………..64
表13:刪題後的KMO and Bartlett’s 檢定………………………………………………65
表14:刪題後的解說總變異量…………………………………………………………..65
表15:刪題的轉軸後的成份矩陣………………………………………………………..67
表16:正式量表的分量尺及所屬題目……………………………………………….....68
表17:ADHD組與控制組在自我知覺自評分數的得分差異摘要表…………………73
表18:ADHD組與控制組在自我知覺效標差距分數的得分差異摘要表…………….74
表19: ADHD共病各組在人數上的統計……………………………………………...76
表20:ADHD憂鬱共病、非憂鬱共病與控制組在自我知覺效標差距分數的描述統計……………………………………………………………………………………77
表21:ADHD憂鬱共病、非憂鬱共病與控制組在自我知覺效標差距分數變異數分析摘要表……………………………………………………………………………..78
表22:ADHD憂鬱共病、非憂鬱共病與控制組在自我知覺自評分數變異數分析摘要表…………………………………………………………………………………..78
表23:ADHD攻擊傾向、非攻擊傾向與控制組在自我知覺效標差距分數的描述統計…………………………………………………………………………………..79
表24:ADHD攻擊傾向、非攻擊傾向與控制組在自我知覺效標差距分數變異數分析摘要表……………………………………………………………………………..80
表25:自我知覺的自評分數與憂鬱總分的組內迴歸係數斜率的同質性檢定…….82
表26:自我知覺的自評分數與攻擊行為總分的組內迴歸係數斜率的同質性檢定………………………………………………………………………………….82
表27:ADHD與控制組兒童的自我知覺自評分數的共變數分析結果…………….83
表28:ADHD與控制組兒童自我知覺自評分數經共變數分析後調整之平均數與標準誤………………………………………………………………………………….83
表29:ADHD與控制組兒童的自我知覺自評分數各分量尺的平均數與標準差….84
表30:ADHD與控制組兒童的自我知覺家長版的各分量尺的平均數與標準差.....85
表31:ADHD與控制組兒童的效標差距分數的各分量尺的平均數與標準差….…85
表32:自我知覺的效標差距分數與憂鬱總分的組內迴歸係數斜率的同質性檢定…………………………………………………………………………………86
表33:自我知覺的效標差距分數與攻擊行為總分的組內迴歸係數斜率的同質性檢定……………………………………………………………………………….….87
表34:ADHD與控制組兒童的自我知覺效標差距分數的共變數分析結果…….….87
表35:ADHD與控制組兒童自我知覺效標差距分數經共變數分析後調整之平均數與標準誤……………………………………………………………………….…….88
表36:ADHD兒童的攻擊傾向與兒童行為檢核量表中其它行為分量尺的相關分析摘要表………………………………………………………………………………..90
表37:ADHD兒童攻擊傾向與兒童行為檢核量表中DSM-IV 導向分量尺的相關分析摘要表……………………………………………………………………………..91
表38:ADHD兒童的攻擊傾向與各分量尺的自我知覺自評分數之相關分析摘要表…………………………………………………………………………………...92
表39:ADHD兒童的攻擊傾向與各分量尺的自我知覺效標差距分數之相關分析摘要表……………………………………………………………………………………92

圖次
圖1:William James的自我圖…………………………………………………………….18
附錄
附錄一:『台灣版兒童青少年憂鬱量表』問卷使用同意書…………………………….116
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附註 etd-0618110-111804

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系統識別號 U0017-1201201116002677
論文名稱(中文) 正子湮滅光譜與Bondi理論評估高分子摻合薄膜自由體積之研究
論文名稱(英文) Study on free volume estimation of blend polymeric membranes by Bondi method and positron annihilation spectroscopy
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 化學工程研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Chemical Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 陳群傑
學號 9771004
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 65頁
指導教授 指導教授-胡蒨傑
指導教授-賴君義
關鍵字(中) 高分子摻和
正子湮滅光譜
氣體透過
自由體積
關鍵字(英) free volume
gas permeabilty
polymer blend
positron annihilation spectroscopy
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究製備相容(Polystyrene/Poly(2,6-dimethyl-p- phenylene oxide))(PS/PPO)和不相容(Poly(bisphenol A-co-4-nitriphthalic anhydride-co-1,3- phenylenediamine)/Polysulfone)(PEI/PSf)摻合薄膜,使用不同之理論與實測方法,探討摻合薄膜之自由體積與氣體分離的相關性,評估Bondi理論估算摻合薄膜自由體積之正確性,同時推導出可正確估算摻合薄膜自由體積之經驗方程式。
SEM和DSC的結果顯示PEI/PSf為不相容摻合薄膜,並且EDX證明在PSf含量為40、50及60wt%時,PEI為非連續相。氣體透過係數隨著PSf的含量增加而提升,Bondi估算所得之自由體積變化與氣體透過不符。但由PALS所計算之自由體積分率變動趨勢與氣體透過係數變化相同,由此可知Bondi理論並不適用於估算不相容摻合薄膜之自由體積。
SEM結果發現PS/PPO摻合薄膜的截面為均相,且DSC結果呈現單一玻璃轉移溫度(Tg),證明PS/PPO摻合薄膜為相容摻合。相容摻合薄膜密度隨著PPO添加而增加,在PPO含量50wt%時有最大的密度。由Bondi估算和PALS計算的自由體積分率隨著PPO的添加均有先下降後上升的趨勢,自由體積變化趨勢與氣體分離行為有顯著差異,此一現象歸因於自由體積尺寸隨著PPO的添加增加而增加,但自由體積數量隨著PPO的添加有先下降後上升的趨勢。

英文摘要 In this study, we prepared miscible polystyrene/ poly(2,6-dimethyl-p- phenylene oxide (PS/PPO) and immiscible poly(bisphenol A-co-4-nitriphthalic anhydride-co-1,3- phenylenediamine)/polysulfone (PEI/PSf) blend membranes and used various theories and methods of measurements to investigate the correlation between free volume in blend membranes and gas separation and to evaluate Bondi theory of estimating free volume in blend membranes, at the same time derive a correct equation for free volume in blend membranes.
SEM and DSC results showed PEI/PSf as immiscible blend membranes, and EDX confirmed PEI as a non-continuous phase at PSf contents of 40, 50, and 60 wt%. Gas permeability increased with the PSf content, and Bondi estimate of change in free volume and gas permeability were inconsistent. However, trends in the resulting changes in fractional free volume calculated from PALS and the changes in gas permeability coefficient were identical. From this information, Bondi theory is not applicable for estimating free volume in immiscible blend membranes.
SEM results show PS/PPO blend membrane cross-section as homogeneous, and DSC results present single glass transition temperature (Tg), verifying PS/PPO blend membrane as miscible. Miscible blend membrane density increased with PPO, and there was a maximum density at PPO content of 50 wt%. From Bondi estimation and PALS calculation, fractional free volume first decreased and then increased with increase in PPO, and free volume change tendency and gas separation behavior were significantly different, and this phenomenon is attributed to increase in the free volume-size with PPO addition; however, the free-volume intensity had the tendency to decrease first and to increase afterward.

論文目次 目錄

中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
圖索引 VII
表索引 IX
第一章 緒論 1
1.1薄膜分離應用 1
1.2 氣體分離膜 3
1.3 薄膜改質 4
1.3.1 高分子基材之開發 4
1.3.2 表面處理(surface treatment) 5
1.3.3 摻合(blend) 5
1.3.4 添加(addition) 5
1.3.5 其他 5
1.4 文獻回顧 6
1.5 研究動機與目的 10
第二章 實驗 12
2.1 實驗藥品 12
2.2 實驗儀器 14
2.3 實驗方法 16
2.3.1 摻合薄膜之製備 16
2.3.2 摻合薄膜之相容性鑑定 17
2.3.2.1 摻合薄膜之結構型態 17
2.3.2.2 摻合薄膜之玻璃轉移溫度 17
2.3.3 摻合薄膜之自由體積 18
2.3.3.1 Bondi理論估算自由體積分率 18
2.3.3.2 正子湮滅壽命光譜 20
2.3.3.3 分子模擬 (Molecular dynamics simulation, MD) 20
2.3.4 摻合薄膜之氣體透過測試 21
2.4 實驗流程圖 24
第三章 結果與討論 25
3.1 不相容PEI/PSf摻合系統 25
3.1.1 PEI/PSf摻合相容性鑑定 25
3.1.2 PEI/PSf摻合薄膜之密度 28
3.1.3 PEI/PSf摻合薄膜之氣體透過係數 29
3.1.4 PEI/PSf摻合薄膜之自由體積 32
3.2 相容PS/PPO摻合系統 36
3.2.1 PS/PPO摻合相容性鑑定 36
3.2.2 PS/PPO摻合薄膜之密度 38
3.2.3 PS/PPO摻合薄膜之氣體透過係數 40
3.2.4 PS/PPO摻合薄膜之自由體積 42
第四章 結論 47
參考文獻 49
附錄 55
作者簡介 56

Fig.1-1Schematic representation of two-phase system separated by a membrane. 2
Fig.1-2 Schematic diagrams of the principal types of membranes. 3
Fig.2-1 Dense membrane casting process. 16
Fig.2-2 Photograph of density measurement apparatus. 18
Fig.2-3 Apparatus of gas permeation. 22
Fig.3-1 SEM micrographs of PEI/PSf blend morphology at different compositions, (a) PEI, (b) PEI/PSf (80/20), (c) PEI/PSf (60/40), (d) PEI/PSf (50/50), (e) PEI/PSf (40/60), (f) PEI/PSf (20/80), and (g) PSf. 26
Fig.3-2 The cross-section morphology and EDX mapping of PEI/PSf blend membranes.(a),(b) PEI/PSf (60/40), (c),(d) PEI/PSf (50/50),(e),(f) PEI/PSf (40/60) 27
Fig.3-3 Effect of PSf content on density of PEI/PSf blend membranes. 29
Fig.3-4Effect of PSf content on gas performance of PEI/PSf blend membranes. 30
Fig.3-5 Theoretical modeling of the pure gas permeability of PEI/PSf blend membranes.(a)O2,(b)N2. 32
Fig.3-6 Variation of average fractional free volume (FFV) as a function of PSf content by Bondi theorety. 35
Fig.3-7 Variation of average fractional free volume (FFV) as a function of PSf content by PALS. 35
Fig.3-8 Lifetime(τ3) and intensity(I3) data for the PEI/PSf blend membranes. 36
Fig.3-9 SEM micrographs of PEI/PSf blend morphology at different compositions, (a) PS, (b) PS/PPO (80/20), (c) PS/PPO (60/40), (d) PS/PPO (50/50), (e) PS/PPO (40/60), (f) PS/PPO (20/80), and (g) PPO. 37
Fig.3-10 Theoretical modeling of the glass transition temperature of PEI/PSf blend membranes. 39
Fig.3-11 Effect of PSf content on density of PS/PPO blend membranes. 39
Fig.3-12 Effect of PPO content on gas performance of PS/PPO blend membranes. 40
Fig.3-13 Theoretical modeling of the pure gas permeability of PS/PPO blend membranes.(a)O2,(b)N2. 41
Fig.3-14 Variation of average fractional free volume (FFV) as a function of PPO content by Bondi theorety. 44
Fig.3-15 Free-volume cross-section images of PS/PPO blend membranes at thickness = 1.5Å (x = a/A,where A is cell length in amorphous model and a is free-volume cross-section position in x-direction). 45
Fig.3-16 Variation of average fractional free volume (FFV) as a function of PPO content by PALS. 46
Fig.3-17 Lifetime(τ3) and intensity(I3) data for the PS/PPO blend membranes. 46

Table 3-1Glass transition temperature of PEI/PSf blend membranes evaluated form DSC data. 28
Table 3-2 Glass transition temperature of PS/PPO blend membranes evaluated form DSC data. 38
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附註 etd-0623110-152703

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 10 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0017-1201201116003381
論文名稱(中文) 直流馬達之異常振動訊號檢測及辨識
論文名稱(英文) Detection and Recognition of Abnormal Vibration Signals of DC Motors
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Electrical Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 林鴻奇
學號 9778018
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 118頁
指導教授 指導教授-李俊耀
關鍵字(中) 倒傳遞類神經網路
小波轉換
希爾伯-黃轉換
關鍵字(英) Back-propagation Algorithm
Wavelet Transform
Hilbert-Huang Transform
學科別分類
中文摘要 由於馬達設備無預警之異常,往往將導致生產單位之停機損失。為預先瞭解馬達於運轉所產生警示訊號,本論文將以直流馬達作為研究對象,分析其運轉中所產生之振動訊號,以期瞭解馬達之運轉狀況,有效降低停機事故發生機率。
首先,為比較希爾伯-黃轉換與小波轉換於時間及頻譜之清晰程度,本研究以模擬訊號作為比較對象,獲得利用希爾伯-黃轉換於訊號清晰度上,優於利用小波轉換之初步結果。
其次,本研究為瞭解希爾伯-黃轉換及小波轉換於濾除突波及雜訊之適用性,分別提出並比較六種濾除策略;而模擬結果顯示,其中兩種策略(先以小波轉換於突波濾除,後以希爾伯-黃轉換於雜訊濾除;及先以經驗模態結合倒傳遞類神經網路於突波濾除,後以希爾伯-黃轉換於雜訊濾除)於突波及雜訊濾除上確具成效。
再者,以實際量測直流馬達之振動訊號作為分析對象,在完成突波及雜訊濾除程序後,則爰用前述對於希爾伯-黃轉換於頻率及時間清晰度優於小波轉換之初步結果,本研究採用希爾伯-黃轉換辨識馬達異常樣本;其分析結果顯示,利用希爾伯-黃轉換頻譜分析確可於希爾伯頻譜上可找出異常之特徵,並判斷出異常種類。
最後,為利用自動辨識方法取代前述之視覺化之功能,本研究分別利用經驗模態及多重解析度分法,分解異常訊號,而後利用特徵擷取結果進行倒傳遞類神經網路分類,將可達到自動辨識之目的。另外,為瞭解上述經驗模態及多重解析度應用於自動辨識之成效差異,本研究以實際直流馬達振動訊號作為分解對象,其分析解果顯示,結合多重解析度分解及倒傳遞類神經網路之程序,較可達到自動辨識之良好成效。


英文摘要 The unexpected malfunction in terms of motor equipment usually results in down-time cost. To understand the breakdown signal in the running process, the vibration signal produced from DC motor is employed to analyze the status of the DC motor in order to decrease the down-time probability.
First, the simulated signals based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and Wavelet Transform (WT) are applied to compare the resolutions of time-frequency contour. The result has shown that the resolution based on HHT is better than that of WT.
Second, to understand the performances of the spike and noise filtering, the six filtering strategies are compared. The simulated results have shown that the two strategies are effective to filter spike and noise. That is, for the first strategy, the spike filtering is applied by WT and then the noise filtering is applied by HHT, and for the second strategy, the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Back-propagation (BP) algorithm are combined to filter spike and then the HHT is applied to filter noise.
Third, the actual measured vibration signal of the DC motor is employed to filter spike and noise, and subsequently, HHT is applied to recognize the malfunction status of DC motor due to the better resolution of HHT.
Finally, the method of automatic recognition is employed to substitute the aforementioned visualized inspection. The EMD and Wavelet Multiresolution Analysis (MRA) are applied to decompose breakdown signal and the extracted characteristics are employed to produce the BPNN feature vector for categorization. In addition, the actual vibration signals for DC motor are employed to implemented EMD and MRA and to compare effectiveness of the EMD mentioned above and MRA for automatic recognition. The results have shown that the combination of MRA and BPNN can achieve a better automatic recognition result.


論文目次 中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
目 錄 III
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 XII
第一章 緒 論 1
1.1研究動機與背景 1
1.2文獻回顧 2
1.3本論文之貢獻 2
1.4章節概要 3
第二章 訊號轉換分析與類神經網路理論 5
2.1前言 5
2.2小波轉換 5
2.2.1連續小波轉換 6
2.2.2離散小波轉換 7
2.2.3多重解析分析 7
2.3希爾伯-黃轉換 11
2.3.1經驗模態分解 11
2.3.2希爾伯轉換 13
2.4類神經網路 14
2.4.1類神經網路架構 14
2.4.2倒傳遞網路 17
2.5小波轉換及希爾伯-黃轉換分析及比較 18
2.6本章結論 19
第三章 突波及雜訊濾除模型 20
3.1前言 20
3.2突波濾除方式 22
3.2.1希爾伯-黃轉換於突波之濾除 22
3.2.2小波轉換於突波之濾除 24
3.2.3經驗模態及倒傳遞類神經網路於突波之濾除 29
3.3雜訊濾除方式 35
3.3.1小波轉換於雜訊之濾除 35
3.3.2希爾伯-黃轉換於雜訊之濾除 40
3.4濾除策略結果討論 45
3.5本章結論 50
第四章 應用希爾伯-黃轉換於直流馬達之異常辨識 51
4.1前言 51
4.2試驗設備及異常種類 51
4.2.1試驗設備 51
4.2.2異常種類 52
4.3希爾伯-黃轉換分析異常 60
4.3.1單一異常樣本辨識 60
4.3.2複合異常樣本辨識 70
4.4本章結論 84
第五章 直流馬達異常自動辨識之探討 85
5.1前言 85
5.2數據擷取方法 85
5.2.1經驗模態分解模型 86
5.2.2多重解析度分解模型 87
5.3自動辨識結果及比較(單一異常樣本) 88
5.3.1經驗模態分解於自動辨識 91
5.3.2多重解析度分解於自動辨識 94
5.3.3討論與比較 98
5.4自動辨識結果(複合異常樣本) 98
5.5本章結論 100
第六章 結論及未來展望 101
6.1結論 101
6.2未來展望 101
參考文獻 103

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附註 etd-0713110-173233

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系統識別號 U0017-1201201116003982
論文名稱(中文) 探討聚苯醚碸基材膜表面型態對電漿聚合層物理結構之影響
論文名稱(英文) Investigation on the effect of PES membrane surface morphology on the physical structure of plasma-polymerized film
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 化學工程研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Chemical Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 林俗伻
學號 9771028
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 126頁
指導教授 指導教授-賴君義
指導教授-李魁然
關鍵字(中) 基材表面型態
聚苯醚碸
正子湮滅光譜
電漿輔助化學氣相沈積
關鍵字(英) substrate surface morphology
positron annihilation spectroscopy
PECVD
poly(ether sulfone)
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究目的在探討不同基材表面型態對電漿聚合層結構之影響,實驗以濕式相轉換法,藉由調整成膜路徑,製備出具有三種不同表面型態(緻密皮層、多孔皮層及無皮層)之聚苯醚碸(Poly(ether sulfone), PES)基材膜。並以高週波電漿輔助化學氣相沈積反應系統(Radio Frequency-Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition, RF-PECVD),進行乙炔氣體電漿聚合反應,沈積具有高均勻性及良好基板附著性之電漿披覆層,以製備出具高透過量之非對稱膜材。同時利用掃描式電子顯微鏡(Scanning Electron Microscopy, SEM)觀測薄膜經電漿聚合之結構型態變化,並結合正子湮滅光譜(Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy, PAS)量測技術,探討電漿複合膜不同層間奈米結構之變化,釐清基材膜表面型態對電漿聚合層物理結構之影響。
由水蒸氣透過測試結果可發現,在相似厚度之聚合層條件下,不同表面型態之基材膜會影響電漿複合膜的透過性質。當基材膜表面為蕾絲狀無皮層結構(T3)時,可製得具低透過阻力之電漿沈積層。在電漿參數(電漿功率、沈積時間、乙炔進料流量及氬氣添加)對不同表面型態基材膜之電漿聚合層結構型態影響之探討中,具不同表面型態之基材膜,經相同電漿聚合反應後,可製得具相似厚度之聚合層;並且隨電漿功率、進料氣體流量、沈積時間之改變,其聚合層沈積速率亦具有相似之變化趨勢。並且發現當基材膜表面型態為不連續面,有機會製備出類似柱狀結構之沈積層,但隨著沈積層厚度之增加,結構呈現類似柱狀之情形會漸漸轉為不明顯。
藉由正子湮滅光譜技術探討複合膜微結構,並經由VEPFIT軟體分析不同層間S parameter值之變化。由最佳之擬合結果顯示,當PES基材膜表面為緻密皮層(T1)或多孔皮層(T2),可於三層結構區分得最佳吻合結果;當PES基材膜表面為蕾絲狀結構(T3),則以四層結構區分得最佳吻合結果。T1及T2基材膜製得具三層結構之電漿複合膜分別為(I)乙炔電漿聚合層、(III)過渡層及(IV)PES基材膜;然而,對於T3基材膜,因電漿聚合反應中,基材膜面孔洞受電漿聚合物填充之效應,造成過渡層前期產生另一層由乙炔電漿聚合物與PES基材高分子共存之混合層(II)。因此更明確地說明基材膜表面型態對電漿沈積層內部結構之影響,特別在過渡層區。
英文摘要 The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the substrate surface morphology on the physical structure of plasma-polymerized films. The wet-phase inversion method was used in fabricating the substrate, and by means of changing the membrane formation path, poly(ether sulfone) (PES) substrates with three different surface types (dense skin layer, porous skin layer, and skin-free layer) were formed. Radio frequency-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) was the technique applied to conduct the acetylene gas plasma polymerization to deposit plasma-polymerized layer on a substrate with a high homogeneity and good adhesion properties, resulting in the preparation of an asymmetric membrane with a high flux. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the change in the structure of the plasma-polymerized membrane, and it was combined with the positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) technique to investigate the change in the nano-structure of the different layers of the plasma-polymerized composite membrane and to clarify the effect of the substrate surface morphology on the plasma-polymerized layer physical composition.
It can be found from the water vapor permeation results that at similar deposited layer thicknesses, different substrate surface morphologies influenced the characteristic permeation rate in the plasma-polymerized composite membrane. With a substrate surface with a lacy-like skin-free structure, a plasma-polymerized layer with a low permeation resistance could be obtained. On investigating the effect of plasma parameters (plasma power, deposition time, acetylene gas feed flow rate, and argon gas amount) on the plasma-polymerized layer structure of different substrate surface morphologies, substrates with different surface morphologies underwent the same change after the plasma polymerization reaction and their polymerized layer deposits had similar thicknesses; changes in the plasma power, feed gas flow rate, and deposition time produced similar trends of changes in polymer layer deposition rates. When the substrate surface morphology was discontinuous, there was a probability to produce a deposited layer with a pillar-like structure; however, with increasing deposited layer thickness, the pillar-like structure would gradually become not obvious.
The composite membrane microstructure was investigated further by means of the positron annihilation spectroscopy technique. Based on the VEPFIT software analysis, the change in S parameter values for different layers was shown from best fittings, and with a PES substrate surface with a dense skin layer (T1) or a porous skin layer, a three-layer model produced best fitting results; with a PES substrate surface with a lacy-like structure (T3), a four-layer model gave best fitting results. The structures of T1 and T2 plasma-polymerized composite membranes had three layers: (I) acetylene plasma-polymerized layer, (III) transition layer, and (IV) PES substrate; however, the T3 substrate whose pores were filled with a polymer due to the plasma polymerization reaction had additional pre-transition layer formed by acetylene plasma polymer and PES polymer coexisting in a mixed layer (II). These results explicitly explain the substrate surface morphology influence on the internal structure of the plasma-polymerized deposited layer, especially in the transition layer region.

論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 III
致謝 V
圖目錄 X
表目錄 XX
第一章 緒論 1
1-1研究緣起 1
1-2 研究動機與目的 3
第二章 原理與文獻回顧 8
2-1 薄膜製備方法 8
2-1-1 濕式相分離法(Wet phase separation) 8
2-1-2 水蒸氣誘導式相分離(Vapor induced phase separation, VIPS) 9
2-1-3 乾式相分離法(Precipitation by solvent evaporation) 9
2-1-4 乾/濕式製程(Dry/wet process) 10
2-2 非溶劑誘導相分離成膜 10
2-2-1 熱力學 10
2-2-2 動力學 12
2-2-2.1 質傳動力學 12
2-2-2.2 合併成長動力學 15
2-3 電漿簡介 17
2-3-1 電漿原理 17
2-3-2 電漿基本氣相反應 18
2-3-3 電漿聚合理論 22
2-3-4 高分子材料表面之電漿改質 24
2-4 正子湮滅光譜 (Positron annihilation spectroscopy, PAS) 分析技術 26
2-4-1 正子湮滅時間(Positron annihilation lifetime, PAL)分析儀 27
2-4-2 可變單一能量慢束正子束(Variable monoenergy slow positron beam, VMSPB)分析儀 28
2-4-2.1 都卜勒展寬能量光譜(Doppler-broadened energy spectrum, DBES) 28
2-4-2.2 正子湮滅時間光譜(Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, PALS) 31
2-4-3 文獻回顧 31
第三章 實驗 34
3-1實驗藥品 34
3-2實驗儀器 35
3-3實驗方法 36
3-3-1高分子溶液配製 36
3-3-2 鑄膜液黏度量測 36
3-3-3光穿透實驗 36
3-3-4薄膜製備 38
3-3-5電漿聚合法製備複合膜 39
3-3-6 蒸氣透過測試 40
3-4 儀器原理 42
3-4-1掃描式電子顯微鏡 42
3-4-2 可變單一能量慢速正子束 (Variable monoenergy slow positron beam, VMSPB)分析儀 43
第四章 結果與討論 44
4-1 PES基材膜之製備 44
4-1-1 高分子濃度對薄膜結構之影響 44
4-1-2 凝聚劑對薄膜結構之影響 46
4-1-3 溶劑對薄膜結構之影響 49
4-2 複合膜結構型態對其水蒸氣透過測試之影響 55
4-3 複合膜微結構之探討 58
4-3-1 電漿功率對乙炔電漿聚合層沈積速率及複合膜結構型態之影響 59
4-3-2 沈積時間對乙炔電漿聚合層沈積速率及複合膜結構型態之影響 63
4-3-3 乙炔進料氣體組成對聚合層沈積速率及複合膜結構型態之影響 69
4-3-4 氬氣電漿蝕刻效應對電漿聚合層沈積速率與複合膜結構型態之影響 74
4-4 正子煙滅光譜技術探討複合膜微結構 83
4-4-1 電漿功率對複合膜內部微結構之影響 83
4-4-2 沈積時間對複合膜內部微結構之影響 92
4-5 基材膜表面型態對電漿沈積層成長機制影響之探討 98
第五章 結論 100
參考文獻 101
作者自述 106

圖目錄
第一章
Fig. 1-1 Schematic representation of various membrane cross-sectional morphologies. 2
Fig. 1-2 Schematic representation of the composite membrane and the corresponding electrical circuit analogue.[3] 3
Fig. 1-3 Schematic representation of the different type composite membrane: (A)with skin layer, (B)skin-free. 3
Fig. 1-4 SEM images of the CA support structures with (A) skin-layer and (B) skin-free layer. 5
Fig. 1-5 The cross-section SEM morphologies (x10 k)of polyamide thin-film composite membranes prepared with different surface morphologies of CA support membrane. (A) PA/Skin CA composite membrane and (B) PA/Skin-free CA composite membrane. 5
Fig. 1-6 Schematic drawing of the plasma-polymerized SiOxCyHz/MCE composite membranes.[4] 7

第二章
Fig. 2-1 Schematic representation of a ternary phase diagram of polymer/solvent/ nonsolvent. 11
Fig. 2-2 Polymer rich phase (black) and polymer lean phase (white).[1] (І, VI)Dense structure; (II)Sponge structure; (III)Bi-continuous or lacy structure; (IV)Nodules. 12
Fig. 2-3 Schematic representation of a casting file/coagulation interface. 13
Fig. 2-4 Schematic representation of different coagulation paths. 13
Fig. 2-5 Ternary phase diagram nonsolvent/solvent/polymer system.[16] 14
Fig. 2-6 Schematic diagrams showing the evolution of local morphologies for two phase-separation mechanisms.[17] 16
Fig. 2-7 Schematic diagram of reactions occurred in a plasma reactor. 22
Fig. 2-8 Schematic of structures possible by plasma treatment.[23] 24
Fig. 2-9 Mean stopping distance (a) as a function of positron incident energy and stopping profiles and (b) for positron as a function of mean depth.[35] 27
Fig. 2-10 Normalized positron annihilation lifetime (PAL). 28
Fig. 2-11 A Doppler broadening energy spectrum (DBES) (a) definition of R (3r/2rarea ratio) parameters from DBES and (b) definitions of S &W parameter, S is ratio of total counts from central region, W is the ratio of wing region, to the total 511 keV annihilation counts. 30

第三章
Fig. 3-1 Schematic representation of the light transmission experiment. 37
Fig. 3-2 Sketch of membranes prepared by nonsolvent induced phase separation process. 38
Fig. 3-3 The schematic diagram of the plasma reactor system. 39
Fig. 3-4 (a) Schematic diagram of permeation cell;(b) Tentative mechanism of vapor permeation. 40
Fig. 3-5 The schematic diagram of vapor permeation apparatus. 41
Fig. 3-6 Variable monoenergy slow positron beam. A: 50 mCi 22Na positron source, B: W-mesh moderator, C: magnetic field (70 G) coils, D: ExB filter, E: positron accelerator, F: correcting magnets, G: gas inlet, H: positron lifetime detector (MCP) for PAL, I: turbo molecular pump, J: samples, K: sample manipulator, L: ion pump, M: Ge solid state detector, N: lifetime detector (BaF2). 43
第四章
Fig. 4-1 The surface morphologies (x20k) of the PES membranes formed by directly immersing different concentration PES/NMP casting films in water: (A) 15 wt% (B) 20 wt% (C) 25 wt %. 45
Fig. 4-2 The cross-section morphologies of the PES membranes formed by directly immersing different concentration PES/NMP casting films in water: (A), (a) 15 wt%; (B), (b) 20 wt%; (C), (c) 25 wt %. (A)~(C) total, x500; (a)~(c) top region, x50k. 45
Fig. 4-3 The SEM images of the PES membranes formed by directly immersing 20 wt% PES/NMP casting films in (A), (a) water; (B), (b) ethanol; (C), (c) n-propanol. (A)~(C) surface, x10k; (a)~(c) cross-section, x500. 47
Fig. 4-4 Light transmission curves of 20 wt% PES/NMP casting film immersed into various coagulations. 49
Fig. 4-5 The SEM images of the PES membranes formed by directly immersing (A), (a) 20 wt% PES/NMP; (B), (b) 20 wt% PES/2P casting films in ethanol bath. (A), (B) surface, x20k; (a), (B) cross-section, x500. 51
Fig. 4-6 Light transmission curves of 20 wt% PES/NMP and 20 wt% PES/2P casting films immersed into ethanol. 52
Fig. 4-7 The SEM images of the PES membranes formed by directly immersing different concentration PES/2P casting films in ethanol: (A), (a) 10 wt%; (B), (b) 15 wt%; (C), (c) 20 wt %. (A)~(C)surface, x20k; (a)~(c) cross-section, x500. 54
Fig. 4-8 The SEM morphologies of the different PES surface morphologies support membrane; PES support membrane with dense skin-layer (T1): (A), (a), porous skin-layer (T2): (B), (b), and skin-free layer(T3): (C), (c). (A)~(C) surface, x20k; (a)~(c) cross-section, x50k. 55
Fig. 4-9 The SEM morphologies of the plasma-polymerized films with different PES surface morphologies support membrane; PES support membrane with dense skin-layer (T1): (A), (a), porous skin-layer (T2): (B), (b), and skin-free layer(T3): (C), (c). (A)~(C) surface, x20k; (a)~(c) cross-section, x50k. (Plasma polymerization conditions: power of 200 W; system pressure of 0.2 torr; C2H2 flow rate of 20 sccm; deposition time of 6 min) 56
Fig. 4-10 Effect of plasma power on the deposition rate of the C2H2 plasma-polymerized film on three kinds of PES surface morphologies, dense skin-layer(T1), porous skin-layer(T2) and skin-free layer(T3). (Plasma polymerization conditions: system pressure of 0.2 torr; C2H2 flow rate of 20 sccm; deposition time of 15 min) 59
Fig. 4-11 The surface morphologies (x20k) of (a) PES and the plasma-polymerized films prepared at plasma power of (b) 60 W, (c) 120 W, (d) 200 W, and (e) 300 W. T1, T2, and T3 represent PES membrane with dense skin-layer, porous skin-layer, and skin-free layer, respectively. (Plasma polymerization conditions: system pressure of 0.2 torr; C2H2 flow rate of 20 sccm; deposition time of 15 min) 61
Fig. 4-12 The cross-section morphologies (x50k) of (a) PES and the plasma-polymerized films prepared at plasma power of (b) 60 W (c) 120 W (d) 200 W (e) 300 W. T1, T2, and T3 represent PES membrane with dense skin-layer, porous skin-layer, and skin-free layer, respectively. (Plasma polymerization conditions: system pressure of 0.2 torr; C2H2 flow rate of 20 sccm; deposition time of 15 min) 62
Fig. 4-13 Relationship between deposition time and deposition rate of the C2H2 plasma-polymerized film on three kinds of PES surface morphologies, dense skin-layer(T1), porous skin-layer(T2) and skin-free layer(T3). (Plasma polymerization conditions: system pressure of 0.2 torr; C2H2 flow rate of 20 sccm; power of 200 W) 63
Fig. 4-14 The surface morphologies (x20k) of (a) PES and the plasma-polymerized films prepared by the deposition time of (b) 1 min, (c) 3 min, (d) 6 min, (e) 10 min, and (f) 15 min. T1, T2, and T3 represent PES membrane with dense skin-layer, porous skin-layer, and skin-free layer, respectively. (Plasma polymerization conditions: system pressure of 0.2 torr; C2H2 flow rate of 20 sccm; power of 200 W) 65
Fig. 4-15 The cross-section morphologies (x50k) of (a) PES and the plasma-polymerized films prepared by the deposition time of (b) 1 min, (c) 3 min, (d) 6 min, (e) 10 min, and (f) 15 min. T1, T2, and T3 represent PES membrane with dense skin-layer, porous skin-layer, and skin-free layer, respectively. (Plasma polymerization conditions: system pressure of 0.2 torr; C2H2 flow rate of 20 sccm; power of 200 W) 67
Fig. 4-16 Effect of C2H2 flow rate on the deposition rate of the C2H2 plasma-polymerized film on three kinds of PES surface morphologies, dense skin-layer (T1), porous skin-layer(T2), and skin-free layer(T3). (Plasma polymerization conditions: system pressure of 0.2 torr; power of 200W; deposition time of 15min) 69
Fig. 4-17 The surface morphologies of (a) PES and the plasma-polymerized films prepared in the C2H2 flow rate of (b) 3 sccm, (c) 5 sccm, (d) 10 sccm, (e) 15 sccm, and (f) 20 sccm. T1, T2, and T3 represent PES membrane with dense skin-layer, porous skin-layer, and skin-free layer, respectively. (x20k) (Plasma polymerization conditions: system pressure of 0.2 torr; power of 200 W; deposition time of 15 min) 70
Fig. 4-18 The cross-section morphologies of (a) PES and the plasma-polymerized films prepared in the C2H2 flow rate of (b) 3 sccm, (c) 5 sccm, (d) 10 sccm, (e) 15 sccm, and (f) 20 sccm.T1, T2, and T3 represent PES membrane with dense skin-layer, porous skin-layer, and skin-free layer, respectively. (x50k) (Plasma polymerization conditions: system pressure of 0.2 torr; power of 200 W; deposition time of 15 min) 72
Fig. 4-19 Effect of Ar content in the feed gas on the deposition rate of the C2H2/Ar plasma polymerized film on three kinds of PES surface morphologies, dense skin-layer (T1), porous skin-layer(T2), and skin-free layer(T3). (Plasma polymerization conditions: system pressure of 0.2 torr; power of 200W; total flow rate of 20 sccm; deposition time of 15min) 74
Fig. 4-20 The deposition mechanical model for a-C:H films.[42] 75
Fig. 4-21 The surface morphologies (x20k) of (a) PES and the plasma-polymerized films prepared in Ar content of (b) 90 vol%, (c) 85 vol%, (d) 75 vol%, (e) 50 vol%, (f) 25 vol%, (g) 10 vol%, and (h) 0 vol%. T1, T2, and T3 represent PES membrane with dense skin-layer, porous skin-layer, and skin-free layer, respectively. (C2H2/Ar plasma polymerization conditions: system pressure of 0.2 torr; power of 200W; total flow rate of 20 sccm; deposition time of 15 min) 77
Fig. 4-22 The cross-section morphologies (x50k) of (a) PES and the plasma-polymerized films prepared in Ar content of (b) 90 vol%, (c) 85 vol%, (d) 75 vol%, (e) 50 vol%, (f) 25 vol%, (g) 10 vol%, and (h) 0 vol%. T1, T2, and T3 represent PES membrane with dense skin-layer, porous skin-layer, and skin-free layer, respectively. (C2H2/Ar plasma polymerization conditions: system pressure of 0.2 torr; power of 200W; total gas flow rate of 20 sccm; deposition time of 15 min) 79
Fig. 4-23 The SEM morphologies of (A), (a) Pristine PES(T1) membrane with dense skin-layer; (B), (b) After Ar-plasma treated PES(T1) membrane; and (C),(c) Pristine PES(T3) membrane with skin-free layer. (A)~(C) surface, x20k; (a)~(c) cross-section, x50k. 81
Fig. 4-24 The SEM morphologies of the plasma-polymerized composite membranes with different morphological substrates: (A), (a) Pristine PES(T1) membrane with dense skin-layer; (B), (b) After Ar-plasma treated PES(T1) membrane; and (C),(c) Pristine PES(T3) membrane with skin-free layer. (A)~(C) surface, x20k; (a)~(c) cross-section, x50k.(C2H2-plasma polymerization conditions: system pressure of 0.2 torr; power of 200W; gas flow rate of 20 sccm; deposition time of 15 min) 82
Fig. 4-25 The SEM images of the plasma-polymerized films with different PES surface morphologies support membrane; PES support membrane with dense skin-layer (T1): (A), (a), porous skin-layer (T2): (B), (b), and skin-free layer (T3): (C), (c). (A)~(C) surface, x20k; (a)~(c) cross-section, x50k. (C2H2-plasma polymerization conditions: power of 60 W; system pressure of 0.2 torr; gas flow rate of 20 sccm; deposition time of 15 min) 84
Fig. 4-26 The SEM images of the plasma polymerized films with different PES surface morphologies support membrane; PES support membrane with dense skin-layer (T1): (A), (a), porous skin-layer (T2): (B), (b), and skin-free layer (T3): (C), (c). (A)~(C) surface, x20k; (a)~(c) cross-section, x50k. (C2H2- plasma polymerization conditions: power of 200 W; system pressure of 0.2 torr; gas flow rate of 20 sccm; deposition time of 15 min) 84
Fig. 4-27 S parameter vs. positron energy (depth) in the plasma polymerized film on different surface morphologies PES membrane at different plasma power. (Plasma polymerization conditions: deposition time of 15 min; C2H2 flow rate of 20 sccm; system pressure of 0.2 torr) 85
Fig. 4-28 Schematic diagram of layer depth structure obtained by using VEPFIT program analysis of S parameter data from DBES in plasma-polymerized composite membranes. The plasma-polymerized film on the different PES surface morphologies prepared at different power of (a) 60 W and (b) 200 W. (Plasma polymerization conditions: deposition time of 15 min; C2H2 flow rate of 20 sccm; system pressure of 0.2 torr) 88
Fig. 4-29 The SEM images of the plasma-polymerized films. PES support membrane with dense skin-layer (T1): (A), (a), (B), (b); skin-free layer(T3): (C), (c), (D), (d). (A)~(D) surface, x20k; (a)~(d) cross-section, x50k. (Plasma polymerization conditions: deposition time of 1 min; C2H2 flow rate of 20 sccm; system pressure of 0.2 torr) 89
Fig. 4-30 R parameters vs. positron energy (depth) in the plasma polymerized film on the different surface morphologies PES membrane. (Plasma polymerization conditions: deposition time of 15 min; C2H2 flow rate of 20 sccm; system pressure of 0.2 torr) 90
Fig. 4-31 R parameter vs. positron energy (depth) in the plasma polymerized film on the different surface morphologies PES membrane. (Plasma polymerization conditions: deposition time of 15 min; C2H2 flow rate of 20 sccm; system pressure of 0.2 torr) 91
Fig. 4-32 S parameter vs. positron energy (depth) in the plasma-polymerized film on the different PES surface morphologies prepared by different deposition time of (a) 6 min and (b) 15 min. (Plasma polymerization conditions: power of 200 W; C2H2 flow rate of 20 sccm; system pressure of 0.2 torr) 93
Fig. 4-33 Schematic diagram of layer depth structure obtained by using VEPFIT program analysis of S parameter data from DBES in plasma-polymerized composite membranes. The plasma-polymerized film on the different PES surface morphologies prepared by different deposition time of (a) 6 min and (b) 15 min. (Plasma polymerization conditions: power of 200 W; C2H2 flow rate of 20 sccm; system pressure of 0.2 torr) 94
Fig. 4-34 R parameter vs. positron energy (depth) in the plasma-polymerized film on the different PES surface morphologies prepared by different deposition time. The diagram (b) is the detailed enlargement of diagram (a). (Plasma polymerization conditions: power of 200 W; C2H2 flow rate of 20 sccm; system pressure of 0.2 torr) 97
Fig. 4-35 Schematic representation of different stages of plasma polymer growth on porous PES membrane. 99
Fig. 4-36 Schematic representation of different morphologies of plasma-polymerized films on PES membrane with dense skin-layer(T1), porous skin-layer(T2), and skin-free layer(T3). 99

表目錄
第一章
Table 1-1 Effect of support layer structure on pervaporation performance of PA/CA composite membranes 5

第二章
Table 2-1 Comparison of plasma polymerization with conventional polymerization 23

第四章
Table 4-1 Solubility parameter of each component 48
Table 4-2 Solubility parameter differences between polymer and solvent 51
Table 4-3 Viscosity of different polymer solutiona) 51
Table 4-4 Viscosity of different concentration polymer solutiona) 53
Table 4-5 Effect of the morphology of plasma composite membrane on the water vapor permeation at 25℃ 56
Table 4-6 Effect of plasma power on the thickness of plasma-polymerized films 60
Table 4-7 Effect of C2H2 flow rate on the thickness of plasma-polymerized films 73

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附註 etd-0727110-140954

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系統識別號 U0017-1201201116004002
論文名稱(中文) 兩性相容劑對PC/PHEMA摻合系統之影響
論文名稱(英文) Effect of amphiphilic compatibilizer on compatibility of PC/PHEMA blend system
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 化學工程研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Chemical Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 柳柏宇
學號 9771042
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 68頁
指導教授 指導教授-賴君義
指導教授-李魁然
關鍵字(中) 高分子摻合
兩性相容劑
自由體積
正子湮滅光譜儀
關鍵字(英) free volume
amphiphilic compatibilizer
Polymer blends
positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究製備PC/PHEMA摻合薄膜應用於滲透蒸發甲醇水溶液脫水程 序,研究中探討PC/PHEMA組成比例對薄膜結構、熱性質、自由體積分布及滲透蒸發分離效能之影響。由SEM觀察PC/PHEMA薄膜截面結構,發現為不相容系統;隨著PHEMA組成比例之增加,薄膜孔隙度與厚度增加,導致薄膜熱穩定性及滲透蒸發選擇性之下降。
為提升摻合薄膜之相容性,實驗中以化學均相接枝聚合方式製備兩性接枝共聚物並作為相容劑,藉由調整單體濃度及反應溫度可製備不同接枝度之接枝共聚物。實驗中以紅外光譜儀(FTIR)及熱重分析儀(TGA)證實接枝聚合反應成功之進行。以極性及非極性量測液進行接觸角量測,實驗結果顯示隨著接枝度之提高其親水性及表面能有提升之趨勢。
三成份摻合薄膜經由電子顯微鏡(SEM)、熱重分析儀(TGA)、動態黏彈機械分析儀(DMA)及正子湮滅光譜儀(PALS)鑑定皆可證實相容劑有效的改善摻合薄膜之相容性;相容性之提升使得薄膜熱穩定性提升,結構趨於緻密化並產生連通孔道,自由體積大小及數目皆有下降之趨勢,顯示界面間缺陷隨相容性提升而縮小。將三成份摻合薄膜進行滲透蒸發甲醇水溶液脫水程序,隨著摻合薄膜相容性之提升,分離效能趨於穩定,透過端水濃度皆高於雙成份摻合系統;在組成比例較低之PHEMA摻合系統中,可有效的改善相容性,使得透過係數及透過水濃度皆有上升之趨勢。
英文摘要 PC/PHEMA blend membranes were fabricated for the dehydration process of methanol aqueous solution by pervaporation. Effects of PC/PHEMA content on the membrane morphology, thermal stability, free volume distribution and pervaporation performances were investigated. The observations of SEM micrographs showed that the PC/PHEMA were immiscible system. With PHEMA content increase, both the membrane porosity and thickness were increase, resulting in reduce thermal stability and pervaporation performances.
To enhance the compatibility between PC and PHEMA, homogeneous grafting polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) onto polycarbonate using radical initiator was investigated as a compatibilizer. The FTIR spectra show that two new peaks at 1740 cm-1 and 3300 cm-1 were presented, attributing to the carbonyl and hydroxyl functional groups. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the success of graft polymerization process. Factors that affect the grafting polymerization were considered as the concentration of monomer and the reaction temperature. It was found that the degree of grafting was increases with increasing monomer concentration. The results of contact angle measurement by polar and non-polar liquids showed that the hydrophilicity and surface energy were increased with the trace of degree of grafting.
The ternary blend membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The results indicated that the additive of compatibilizer can improve the membranes compatibility effectively. The improvement of compatibility between PC and PHEMA would lead to enhance thermal stability and densification of the membrane morphology. The PALS data showed that the size of free volume and intensity of blend membrane were declined, and would result the increase of compatibility with the interface between PC and PHEMA.
The ternary blend membranes were fabricated for dehydration of methanol aqueous solution by pervaporation. The separation performances of blend membranes tend to be stable with compatibility increasing, and the water concentration in permeate is better than binary blending system. The compatibility was improved effectively at a lower composition of PHEMA blending system, which leads permeability and water concentration in permeate increase simultaneously.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
誌謝 IV
目錄 V
圖索引 VII
表索引 IX
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究緣起與文獻回顧 1
1.1.1 薄膜製備方式 1
1.1.2 薄膜之改質方式 2
1.1.3 滲透蒸發分離程序 3
1.2 摻合系統之相容性質 4
1.3 研究動機與目的 11
第二章 實驗 12
2-1實驗藥品 12
2-2實驗儀器 14
2-3 實驗方法 16
2.3.1 PC/PHEMA 雙成份摻合薄膜 16
2.3.2 PC-g-PHEMA接枝共聚高分子做為相容劑 16
2.3.3 PC/compatibilizer/PHEMA三成份摻合薄膜 19
2.3.4 滲透蒸發程序 19
2.3.5 摻合薄膜之相容性鑑定 21
2.3.5 實驗流程 23
第三章 結果與討論 24
3.1 PC/PHEMA雙成份摻合系統結構 24
3.2 PC/PHEMA雙成份摻合薄膜熱性質分析 26
3.3 PC/PHEMA雙成份摻合薄膜滲透蒸發分離效能 27
3.4化學均相接枝方式製備PC-g-PHEMA相容劑 29
3.5 PC/Compatibilizer/PHEMA三成份摻合系統 37
第四章 結論 50
參考文獻 51
作者簡介 57

          圖索引
第一章 緒論
Fig.1- 1 The principle of pervaporation 4
Fig.1- 2 Schematic diagram of polymer blends 5
Fig.1- 3 Schematic diagram of IPN 7
Fig.1- 4 Speculative model representing the compatibilising action of block and random copolymer 9

第二章 實驗
Fig.2- 1Vacuum distillation of HEMA monomer 16
Fig.2- 2 Reaction mechanism for Homogeneous graft polymerization 18
Fig.2- 3 Schematic for reaction apparatus and Soxhlet extractor 19
Fig.2- 4 Schematic diagram of pervaporation apparatus 21
Fig.2- 5 Experimental flow chart 23

第三章 結果與討論
Fig.3- 1 Photographs of PC/PHEMA blends 25
Fig.3- 2 SEM photos of PC/PHEMA blend membranes 25
Fig.3- 3 TGA curves of PC/PHEMA blend membranes 26
Fig.3- 4 Pervaporation performances of PC/PHEMA blend membranes 28
Fig.3- 5 Surface morphology of PC/PHEMA blend membrane (80/20) 28
Fig.3- 6 FTIR spectra of (a) pristine PC (b) PC-g-PHEMA with DG%=10.4 (c)PHEMA. 29
Fig.3- 7 TGA curves of PC and PC-g-PHEMA. 30
Fig.3- 8 DTGA curves of PC and PC-g-PHEMA. 30
Fig.3- 9 Effect of monomer conc. on reaction parameters (80oC, 4hours) 32
Fig.3- 10 Effect of monomer conc. on reaction parameters (100oC, 4hours) 33
Fig.3- 11 Effect of temperature on degree of grafting: (■) 80℃, (●) 100℃, 33
Fig.3- 12 SEM micrographs of PC/compatibilizer/PHEMA blend membranes 34
Fig.3- 13 Schematic illustration for the compatibilization of the PC/PHEMA blend by using the PC-g-PHEMA graft copolymer 36
Fig.3- 14 Photographs of PC/compatibilizer/PHEMA blends 37
Fig.3- 15 SEM micrographs of PC/copatibilizer/PHEMA blend membranes 38
Fig.3- 16 DMA curves of 90/10 and 90/10+10phr blend membranes 39
Fig.3- 17 DMA curves of 80/20 and 80/20+5phr blend membranes 39
Fig.3- 18 TGA curves of PC/compatibilizer/PHEMA blend membranes (90/10) 40
Fig.3- 19 TGA curves of PC/compatibilizer/PHEMA blend membranes (75/25) 41
Fig.3- 20 o-Ps lifetime and intensity of PC/PHEMA blend membranes 42
Fig.3- 21 lifetime of blend membranes: (■) binary blends, (●) ternary blends. 43
Fig.3- 22 Intensity of blend membranes: (■) binary blends, (●) ternary blends. 44
Fig.3- 23 FFV% of blend membranes: (■) binary blends, (●) ternary blends. 44
Fig.3- 24 Free volume distribution of binary blend membranes. 45
Fig.3- 25 Free volume distribution of ternary blend membranes. 45
Fig.3- 26 Free volume distribution of binary and ternary blends. 46
Fig.3- 27 Effect of DG% in compatibilizer on pervaporation performances 48
Fig.3- 28 Pervaporation performances of blend membranes 49

表索引
第二章 實驗
Tab.2- 1 Membranes thickness 20
第三章 結果與討論
Tab.3- 1 Solubility parameters of PC, PHEMA and NMP 25
Tab.3- 2 Effect of monomer conc. on reaction parameters (80oC) 32
Tab.3- 3 Effect of monomer conc. on reaction parameters (100oC) 33
Tab.3- 4 The contact angle data for PC, PC-g-PHEMA with water(θ1), CH2I2(θ2) and resulting surface tension 35
Tab.3- 5 Glass transition temperature of blend membranes 38

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附註 etd-0802110-095815

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 13 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0017-1201201116004947
論文名稱(中文) 奈米粒子不對稱修飾技術用於生物組裝
論文名稱(英文) Asymmetric Functionalization of Nanoparticle for Bioassembly
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 生物醫學工程研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 莊家銘
學號 9775009
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 70頁
指導教授 指導教授-張恒雄
關鍵字(中) 牛血清蛋白
不對稱修飾
兩性高分子
卵白素
關鍵字(英) asymmetric modification
bovine serum albumin
streptavidin
amphiphilic polymer
學科別分類
中文摘要 摘要
近年來,發展奈米粒子表面官能基和其表面精確控制生物分子數目,已成為奈米科學重要技術領域。奈米粒子高分子披覆主要利用兩性高分子披覆上有機疏水性奈米粒子表面,並改質為水溶性。本研究主要利用高分子披覆之奈米粒子探討蛋白質共價性鍵結及非特異性鍵結,將奈米粒子修飾卵白素(streptavidin)及牛血清蛋白(BSA),並利用膠體電泳分離的方式分離表面具有生物分子之奈米粒子,此技術延伸至奈米粒子不對稱修飾,在奈米粒子表面形成兩種蛋白的結構,並探討奈米粒子合成、兩性高分子的批覆改質後和嫁接修飾上卵白素、牛血清蛋白等生物分子後,是否會影響奈米粒子本身的特性,再以膠體電泳分離出具有一個卵白素的奈米粒子,再添加 BSA 填補奈米粒子表面所剩下的空間形成兩種蛋白的不對稱性修飾,此不對稱性修飾技術在未來可以應用於不對稱性修飾可控組裝發展特定且更具複雜多樣化奈米結構的組裝。


英文摘要 Abstract
The development of nanoparticles surface functionality and controlling the functional group on nanomaterials have become an important nanotechnology in recent years. Amphiphilic polymer coating of nanoparticles is technique of transferring hydrophobic nanoparticles to aqueous solution. In this research, we study the covalent and non-covalent binding of polymer-coated nanoparticle with streptavidin and bovine serum albumin (BSA), assessed by gel electrophoresis. The simple bioconjugate techniques can extend to the asymmetric modification successfully which can easily conjugate more than two kinds of protein on the polymer-coated nanoparticles. The residue space on single streptavidin-modified gold nanoparticles was saturated by mixing high concentration of BSA proteins. Asymmetric modification have been demonstrated in other nanoparticle systems, such as CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. The thesis unveiled the basic building block of protein modification on nanoparticles which is important issue on the nanomedicine.


論文目次 目錄
摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
致謝 III
圖索引 VII
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 膠體奈米粒子(COLLOIDAL NANOPARTICLE) 5
2.2 奈米粒子特性與應用 6
2.3 奈米粒子表面改質官能化 9
2.3.1配體置換(ligand exchange) 9
2.3.2矽烷化(silanization) 11
2.3.3磷脂質/界面活性劑披覆(phospholipid/surfactant coating) 12
2.3.4兩性高分子披覆(amphiphilic polymer coating) 13
2.4 不對稱修飾技術 15
第三章 材料與方法 23
3.1 實驗藥品 23
3.2 實驗儀器設備 25
3.3 實驗設計架構 26
3.4 實驗步驟 27
3.4.1 有機奈米粒子親水性改質 27
3.4.2 奈米粒子合成製備 28
3.4.3 奈米粒子的兩性高分子披覆(Polymercoating) 30
3.4.4 兩性高分子披覆的純化 31
3.4.5 親水性奈米粒子生物分子嫁接的製備 31
第四章 結果與討論 36
4.1奈米粒子的合成及親水相改質 36
4.1.1 奈米粒子的兩性高分子披覆 36
4.1.2 奈米粒子光譜量測 37
4.1.2.1 奈米金粒子吸收光光譜 37
4.2親水性奈米粒子生物分子嫁接的製備 40
4.2.1牛血清蛋白修飾奈米金粒子(BSA@NP) 40
4.2.2單一卵白素嫁接奈米粒子(1-streptavidin@NP) 44
4.2.3 Anti mouse IgG修飾奈米粒子(Anti mouse IgG@NP) 46
4.2.4 非對稱性修飾奈米粒子(asymmetric modification NP) 47
第五章 討論 49
第六章 結論 52
第七章未來展望 53
參考文獻 54
附錄 62

圖索引
圖2- 1. 不同粒徑大小奈米金溶液顏色:12, 18, 30, 40 及 72 NM(由左至右)[19]。 7
圖2- 2. (A)金屬與半導體材料能階密度示意圖 (B)不同維度量子點能階密度示意圖[20]。 7
圖2- 3. 以 UV 光激發不同顏色之 CDSE/ZNS 量子點。由左至右(藍至紅色)螢光峰值分別位於 433, 473, 481, 500, 518, 543, 565, 587, 610 及 655 NM [21]。 7
圖2- 4.磁性奈米粒子作為對比劑應用於核磁共振的成像[23]。 8
圖2- 5.普遍改質修飾有機疏水性奈米粒子策略示意圖[13]。 9
圖2- 6 .配體置換改質有機疏水性量子點示意圖[25]。 10
圖2- 7. DHLA-PEG750-OCH3 (上) 、DHLA-PEG600-OH (下)標定細人類子宮頸癌細胞(HELA CELLS)[25]。 10
圖2- 8.量子點或磁性奈米粒子表面矽烷化改質示意圖[26]。 11
圖2- 9 .油酸穩定氧化鐵奈米粒子以 Α- CD 改質成水溶性示意圖[27]。 12
圖2- 10 .油酸/Α- CD 改質 10 NM氧化鐵奈米粒子前後照片。(A)改質前 (B)改質後 (C)離心純化後[27]。(上層為正己烷相,下層為水相)。 13
圖2- 11. 磷脂質/界面活性劑披覆量子點改質水溶性示意圖[28]。 13
圖2- 12. POLY(MALEIC ANHYDRIDE ALT-1-TETRADECENE)兩性高分子披覆有機疏水性奈米粒子示意圖[29]。 14
圖2- 13.兩性高分子披覆奈米粒子示意圖。(上:聚馬來酸酐未開環前(有機疏水性);中:聚馬來酸酐開環後(水相);下:修飾嫁接其他生物分子,如:醣類、PEG等)[30]。 15
圖2- 14.固相合成法不對稱修飾原理概念示意圖[36]。 16
圖2- 15.矽烷化玻璃基材不對稱修飾示意圖[42]。 18
圖2- 16 .以聚單晶體進行不對稱修飾示意圖[47]。 19
圖2- 17 .以二氧化矽微粒子為固相基底不對稱修飾示意圖[48]。 19
圖2- 18.以磁性微粒為固相基底不對稱修飾示意圖[49]。 20
圖2- 19. 液-液界面不對稱修飾及組裝示意圖[54]。 21
圖2- 20.液-液界面不對稱修飾及組裝示意圖[55]。 21

圖3- 1. 本研究實驗設計架構圖。 27
圖3- 2. 馬來酸酐開環示意圖。 28
圖3- 3 . 兩性高分子合成示意圖。 28
圖3- 4. 奈米金粒子合成示意圖[56 ]。 29
圖3- 5.兩性高分子披覆奈米粒子示意圖。 30
圖3- 6.BSA 修飾於奈米金粒子表面示意圖。 32
圖3- 7 .1-SA@AUNP 元件製備示意圖。 33
圖3- 8 ANTI MOUSE IGG 修飾奈米金粒子示意圖。 34
圖3- 9.BSA不對稱性修飾奈米金粒子示意圖。 35

圖4- 1.疏水性奈米粒子兩性高分子披覆前(A)和兩性高分子披覆後(B)。 37
圖4- 2.奈米金粒子的吸收光光譜,(A)有機相奈米金粒子,(B)添加 TOP 置換金粒子表面的分子,(C)經過甲醇沉澱純化奈米金粒子回溶到氯仿相,(D) 經過兩性高分子披覆後的奈米金粒子。 38
圖4- 3 . 量子點的吸收光光譜,(A)有機相中之綠色量子點,(B)經過兩性高分子披覆後的綠色量子點,(C) 有機相中之紅色量子點,(D) 經過兩性高分子披覆後的紅色量子點。 39
圖4- 4.量子點之螢光光譜,(A)在有機相中的綠色量子點,(B)經過兩性高分子披覆後的綠色量子點,(C)在有機相中的紅色量子點,(D) 經過兩性高分子披覆後的紅色量子點。 40
圖4- 5. 不同濃度 BSA 修飾於不同奈米粒子材料表面。(A) BSA 修飾於奈米金粒子表面,(B) BSA 修飾於綠色量子點表面,(C) BSA 修飾於紅色量子點表面。 41
圖4- 6.BSA 修飾奈米金粒子前後DLS 分析。上: 6 NM AUNP,下: BSA(50 MG/ML) 修飾 6 NM AUNP。 42
圖4- 7. BSA@AUNP 吸收光譜。由上至下(BSA 最終反應濃度)為0.006 MG/ML, 0.012 MG/ML, 0.024 MG/ML, 0.048 MG/ML, 0.096 MG/ML, 0.19 MG/ML, 0.38 MG/ML, 0.79 MG/ML, 1.58 MG/ML, 3.16 MG/ML, 6.125 MG/ML, 12.5 MG/ML, 25 MG/ML, 50 MG/ML。 43
圖4- 8. BSA 修飾奈米金粒子非特異性鍵結測試,(A) 6 NM AUNP, 44
圖4- 9. 1-STREPTAVIDIN@AUNP 的 EDC 反應濃序列測試(A)與放大製備(B)。 45
圖4- 10.不同數目卵白素嫁接上綠色量子點。[EDC]/[GQD] = 1K、2K、4K、8K、16K、32K。 45
圖4- 11.不同數目卵白素嫁接上紅色量子點。[EDC]/[GQD] = 1K、2K、4K、8K、16K、32K。 46
圖4- 12. 不同數目 ANTI MOUSE IGG 修飾上奈米金粒子。 46
圖4- 13. 不同數目 ANTI MOUSE IGG 修飾上綠色量子點。 47
圖4- 14.不同數目 ANTI MOUSE IGG 修飾上紅色量子點。 47
圖4- 15.非對稱性奈米粒子膠體電泳圖,(A) 6 NM AUNP,(B) 1-SA-AUNP,(C) 1-SA-AUNP + BSA。 48

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系統識別號 U0017-1201201116005295
論文名稱(中文) 利用正子湮滅光譜分析技術及分子模擬方法探討聚醯胺複合薄膜微結構
論文名稱(英文) Study on fine-structure of polyamide thin-film composite membrane by positron annihilation spectroscopy and molecular simulation
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 化學工程研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Chemical Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 黃韻璇
學號 9771006
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 121頁
指導教授 指導教授-賴君義
指導教授-李魁然
關鍵字(中) 聚醯胺高分子
分子模擬
複合薄膜
正子湮滅技術
界面聚合
關鍵字(英) molecualr simulation
polyamide
positron annihilaiton spectroscopy
interfacial polymerization
composite membrane
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究利用不同結構之胺單體(HA、DAPE、DAPL)與不同結構之醯氯單體 (SCC、tNBDC),於改質的聚丙烯腈 (modified polyacrylonitrile, mPAN) 非對稱基材薄膜表面上進行界面聚合反應,製備一系列聚醯胺/聚丙烯腈複合薄膜 ( PA/mPAN TFC membrane ),應用於滲透蒸發分離程序分離醇類水溶液。
研究中利用全反射式傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜儀 (ATR-FTIR)、X射線光電子能譜儀 (XPS) 與掃描式電子顯微鏡 (SEM) 來鑑定聚醯胺聚合層的化學結構與形態。利用對水接觸角 (contact angle) 試驗及原子力顯微鏡 (AFM) 測試聚醯胺複合薄膜表面的親水性及粗糙度。
研究中探討單體結構與聚合條件(水相與有機相單體溶液濃度、水相處理時間、聚合時間等)對滲透蒸發分離效能的影響。為了瞭解進料膨潤效應對聚醯胺複合薄膜聚合層微細結構的影響,利用正子湮滅光譜分析技術(Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy, PAS)偵測聚醯胺聚合層在乾燥狀態下或在進料溶液浸溼狀態下的自由體積變化,並與滲透蒸發分離效能作關聯。另外,嘗試利用分子模擬(Molecular Simulation)技術理論探討聚醯胺聚合層在分子尺度下,進料膨潤效應對其結構特性的影響。
文中比較兩種不同結構聚醯胺聚合層(DAPE-SCC、DAPE-tNBDC)受到進料膨潤對自由體積變化及分離效能的差異。由正子湮滅光譜分析結果顯示,聚醯胺聚合層在濕潤環境下,受進料膨潤的影響具有較大尺寸的自由體積,而在濕潤環境下的自由體積大小(free volume size)及數目(intensity)與分離效能有良好的關聯性。另外,由正子湮滅光譜分析結果亦顯示,兩種不同結構的聚合層顯示出不同的膨潤程度,研究中嘗試利用分子模擬技術分析微觀尺度下,高分子鏈在濕潤環境中的擾動情形。由分子模擬分析技術結果顯示,具有懸垂基團(norbornylene)的聚醯胺聚合層結構,在濕潤環境下高分子鏈整體的擾動性較低,但懸垂基團本身的擾動性則較佳;推估造成tNBDC系列具有較大膨潤程度的原因是由懸垂基團的擾動貢獻為主導。研究結果顯示,藉由正子湮滅光譜分析技術及分子模擬分析技術與滲透蒸發分離效能有良好的相關性。
效能測試結果顯示,當mPAN基材薄膜浸泡於0.1 wt% DAPL水溶液中60秒,而後表面接觸0.5 wt% SCC/toluene有機溶液進行界面聚合反應15秒,所製得之複合薄膜於25oC下進行滲透蒸發程序分離90 wt%乙醇水溶液有較理想之分離效能,其透過量約為590 g/m2h,而透過水濃度約為96.7 wt%。

英文摘要 To improve the permeation rate of polyamide (PA) membrane, a series of polyamide thin-film composite (TFC) membranes was prepared via interfacial polymerization of various water-soluble amine monomers (HA, DAPE and DAPL) and various acyl chloride monomers (SCC and tNBDC) on the surface of asymmetric modified polyacrylonitrile (mPAN) membranes. The PA/mPAN composite membranes were applied to the pervaporation separation of aqueous alcohol solutions. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the chemical structures and morphologies of the polyamide active layers of the composite membranes. The water contact angle measurement and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the surface hydrophilicity and surface roughness of the composite membranes.
The effect of the chemical structure of the monomers and the interfacial polymerization conditions, such as the monomer concentration of aqueous and organic solutions, the immersion time of aqueous solution, the polymerization time on the pervaporation performance were investigated. In addition, the influences of the membrane swelling on the changes of membrane fine-structure and pervaporation performance were systematically analyzed by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation.
From the result of PAS analysis, the swollen polyamide active layer showed a large o-Ps lifetime than the dry active layer, and the PAS analysis at wet state was consistent with the pervaporation performance of the polyamide TFC membranes. The theoretical analysis by the MD simulation technique was showed that the side chain fluctuation of tNBDC would be improved more obviously than that in the SCC membrane after swollen, which led to from the more effective free volume in the wet tNBDC membrane.
It was found that the DAPL-SCC/mPAN thin-film composite membranes prepared by immersing mPAN into 0.1 wt% aqueous DAPL solution for 60 sec and then contacting it with 0.5 wt% SCC in toluene organic solution for 15 sec showed the best pervaporation performance of 90 wt% ethanol aqueous solution at 25oC, the permeation rate was about 590 g/m2h and the water concentration in permeate was about 96.7 wt%.

論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract III
目錄 V
圖索引 IX
表索引 XV
第一章 緒論 XV
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 薄膜簡介 1
1-2 薄膜分離程序 3
1-3 滲透蒸發分離程序 5
1-4 複合薄膜之製備 6
1-4-1 基材膜之製備 7
1-4-2 緻密層之製備 7
1-5 聚醯胺高分子 9
1-6 正子湮滅光譜分析技術簡介 12
1-6-1 正子湮滅時間(Positron Annihilation Lifetime, PAL)分析儀 14
1-6-2 可變單一能量慢速正子束 (Variable Monoenergy Slow Positron Beam, VMSPB) 分析儀 15
1-7 分子模擬簡介 18
1-7-1 分子模擬計算方法與原理 18
1-7-2 自由體積分率之計算 21
第二章 文獻回顧 23
2-1 界面聚合薄膜簡介 23
2-1-2 正子湮滅光譜分析技術在高分子薄膜上的應用 25
2-2 分子模擬技術在高分子薄膜上的應用 27
2-3 研究動機 29
第三章 實驗 31
3-1 實驗藥品 31
3-2 實驗儀器 32
3-3 薄膜的製備 33
3-3-1 基材膜的製備 33
3-3-2 複合薄膜的製備 34
3-4 薄膜鑑定 35
3-4-1 掃描式電子顯微鏡 ( Scanning Electron Spectroscopy, SEM ) 35
3-4-2全反射式傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜儀 ( Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR ) 36
3-4-3 原子力顯微鏡 ( Atomic Force Microscopy, AFM ) 37
3-4-4 接觸角量測儀 ( Contact Angle Meter ) 39
3-4-5 X-ray 繞射分析儀 (X-ray Diffractometer, XRD ) 39
3-4-5 X射線光電子能譜儀 (XPS) 40
3-4-6 薄膜密度測試 42
3-4-7 都卜勒展寬能量光譜 ( Doppler-broadened Energy Spectrum, DBES ) 43
3-4-8 正子煙滅時間光譜 ( Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy, PALS ) 44
3-4-9 滲透蒸發測試 45
第四章 分子模擬理論方法 47
4-1 界面聚合複合薄膜聚合層模型之建立 47
4-2 分子作用立場 50
4-3 能量最小化與週期性邊界條件 53
4-3-1 能量最小化 53
4-3-2 週期性邊界條件 54
4-4 分子動態模擬 56
4-4-1 初始條件設定 56
4-4-2 NVT與NPT系集 57
4-4-3 動態計算 57
4-5 物理量分析 59
4-5-1 自由體積與容通體積分率 59
4-5-2 徑向分佈函數分析 60
第五章 結果與討論 61
5-1 聚醯胺複合薄膜聚合層之結構設計與鑑定 61
5-2 聚醯胺複合薄膜之表面粗糙度與親水性 69
5-3 正子湮滅光譜分析技術應用於自由體積之估計 71
5-3-1 都卜勒展寬能量光譜分析 71
5-3-2 正子湮滅時間光譜分析 78
5-4 分子動態模擬技術應用於自由體積之估計 82
5-4-1 聚醯胺聚合層模型確認 82
5-4-2 不同環境下聚合層高分子之徑向分佈函數分析 86
5-5 有機相溶液濃度對滲透蒸發分離效能的影響 92
5-6 水相溶液濃度對滲透蒸發分離效能的影響 94
5-7 聚合時間對滲透蒸發分離效能的影響 95
5-8 水相溶液浸泡時間對滲透蒸發分離效能的影響 96
第五章 結論 98
第六章 參考文獻 100

圖索引
第一章 緒論
Figure 1-1 Schematic representation of various membrane cross-sectional morphologies. 2
Figure 1-2 Schematic representation of the nominal pore size and best theoretical model for the principal membrane separation processes. 3
Figure 1-3 Schematic representation of a two-phase system separated by a membrane. 4
Figure 1-4 The principle of pervaporation. 6
Figure 1-5 Schematic diagram of composite membrane. 7
Figure 1-6 Schematic drawing of the formation of a composite membrane via interfacial polymerization. 8
Figure 1-7 The scheme of chemical reaction for synthesized polyamide from interfacial polymerization of TETA and TMC onto the surface of the mPAN membrane. 8
Figure 1-8 Diagrams of polymer film growth at liquid interfaces. 11
Figure 1-9 Mean stopping distance and stopping profiles for positron as a function of incident energy. 14
Figure 1-10 Normalized positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectra. 15
Figure 1-11 (a) Doppler broadening energy spectrum (DBES, top) and definitions of S, W, and R (3/2 ratio) parameters from DBES. S is ratio of total counts from central region, W is the ratio of wing region, to the total 511 keV annihilation counts, respectively while R is the ratio of 3/2 annihilation. 16
Figure 1-12 (b) continuous. 17

Figure 1-13 Principal view of the two approaches to connect free grid points in an example free volume region. 22

第三章 實驗
Figure 3-1 The chemical structure of amine monomers, (a) Hydrazine (HA);(b) 1,3-Diaminopropan (DAPE);(c) 1,3-Diamino-2-propanol (DAPL). 34
Figure 3-2 The chemical structure of acyl chloride monomers, (a) Succinyl chloride (SCC);(b) trans-3,6-Endomethylene-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophtgaloyl chloride (tNBDC) 35
Figure 3-3 Illustration of interfacial polymerization procedure. 35
Figure 3-4 The schematic diagram of the photoelectric effect. 36
Figure 3-5 The apparatus ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. 37
Figure 3-6 The schematic diagram of AFM. 39
Figure 3-7 The relationship between force and distance of adjacent atoms. 39
Figure 3-8 The schematic diagram of the photoelectric effect. 42
Figure 3-9 The schematic diagram of XPS. 42
Figure 3-10 Bulk density instrument. 43
Figure 3-11 The schematic diagram of pervaporation apparatus. 46

第四章 理論方法
Figure 4-1 The chemical structure of polyamide active layers, (a) DAPE-SCC;(b) DAPE-tNBDC. 49
Figure 4-2 The bonding and non-bonding energy terms used in COMPASS force-field. 52
Figure 4-3 Schematic presentation of primary cell and image cell in the periodic boundary condition system. 55
Figure 4-4 Schematic presentation of (a) Verlet algorithm and (b) Leapfrog algorithm. 59

第五章 結果與討論
Figure 5-1 ATR-FTIR spectra of the polyamide thin-film composite membranes. (a) modified PAN support (mPAN);(b) DAPL-SCC/mPAN composite membrane;(c) DAPE-SCC/mPAN composite membrane;(d) HA-SCC/mPAN composite membrane. (Polymerization condition:immersion in 1.0 wt% amine solution for 3 min and then contacting with 0.5 wt% SCC solution for 3 min.) 63
Figure 5-2 SEM images of the surface and cross-section morphologies of the thin-film composite membranes. (a)(b) modified PAN support;(c)(d) HA-SCC/mPAN composite membrane;(e)(f) DAPE-SCC/mPAN composite membrane;(g)(h) DAPL-SCC/mPNN composite membrane. (Polymerization condition:immersion in 1.0 wt% amine solution for 3min and then contacting with 0.5 wt% SCC solution for 3 min.) 64
Figure 5-3 ATR-FTIR spectra of the polyamide thin-film composite membranes. (a) modified PAN support (mPAN);(b) DAPL-tNBDC/mPAN composite membrane;(c) DAPE-tNBDC/mPAN composite membrane;(d) HA-tNBDC/mPAN composite membrane. (Polymerization condition:immersion in 1.0 wt% amine solution for 3min and then contacting with 0.5 wt% tNBDC solution for 3 min.) 66
Figure 5-4 SEM images of the surface and cross-section morphologies of the thin-film composite membranes. (a)(b) modified PAN support;(c)(d) HA-tNBDC/mPAN composite membrane;(e)(f) DAPE-tNBDC/mPAN composite membrane;(g)(h) DAPL-tNBDC/mPAN composite membrane. (Polymerization condition:immersion in 1.0 wt% amine solution for 3 min and then contacting with 0.5 wt% tNBDC solution for 3 min.) 67
Figure 5-5 S parameter as a function of positron incident energy for polyamide thin-film composite membranes. (■) -SCC/mPAN;(▲) DAPL-SCC/mPAN. (Polymerization condition:immersion in 1.0 wt% amine monomers solution for 3 min and then contacting with 0.5 wt% acyl chloride monomers solution for 3 min.) 74
Figure 5-6 S parameter as a function of positron incident energy for polyamide thin-film composite membranes. (■) HA-tNBDC/mPAN;(●) DAPE-tNBDC/mPAN;(▲) DAPL-tNBDC/mPAN. (Polymerization condition:immersion in 1.0 wt% amine monomers solution for 3 min and then contacting with 0.5 wt% acyl chloride monomers solution for 3 min.) 75
Figure 5- 7 Fractional free volume in DAPE-SCC polyamide active layer as function of time at dry state. (a) NPT ensemble for 300ps;(b) NVT ensemble for 500ps. 83
Figure 5- 8 Fractional free volume in DAPE-SCC polyamide active layer as function of time at wet state. (a) NPT ensemble for 300ps;(b) NVT ensemble for 500ps. 84
Figure 5- 9 Fractional free volume in DAPE-tNBDC polyamide active layer as function of time at dry state. (a) NPT ensemble for 300ps;(b) NVT ensemble for 500ps. 84
Figure 5- 10 Fractional free volume in DAPE-tNBDC polyamide active layer as function of time at dry state. (a) NPT ensemble for 300ps;(b) NVT ensemble for 500ps. 84
Figure 5-11 The RDF of C-C atom pairs on the main chains of the DAPE-SCC polyamide active layer. 88
Figure 5-12 The RDF of C-C atom pairs on the main chains of the DAPE-tNBDC polyamide active layer. 88
Figure 5-13 The XRD spectra of aromatic polyamide active layer. 89
Figure 5-14 The RDF of norbornylene on the side chains of the DAPE-NBDC polyamide active layer. 90
Figure 5-15 The RDF of O-O atom pairs on the main chains of the DAPE-SCC polyamide active layer. 91
Figure 5-16 The RDF of O-O atom pairs on the main chains of the DAPE-tNBDC polyamide active layer. 91
Figure 5-17 Effect of the concentration of the SCC solution on the pervaporation performance of 90 wt% aqueous ethanol solution through the DAPL-SCC/mPAN membranes at 25oC. (Polymerization condition:mPAN support was immersing in 1.0 wt% DAPL solution for 3 min and then contacting with a serial concentration of SCC solution for 3 min.) 94
Figure 5-18 Effect of the concentration of the aqueous solution on the pervaporation performance of 90 wt% aqueous ethanol solution through the DAPL-SCC/mPAN membranes at 25oC. (Polymerization condition:mPAN support was immersing in a serial concentration of DAPL solution for 3 min and then contacting with 0.5 wt% SCC solution for 3 min.) 95
Figure 5-19 Effect of the polymerization time on the pervaporation performance of 90 wt% aqueous ethanol solution through the DAPL-SCC/mPAN membranes at 25oC. (Polymerization condition:mPAN support was immersing in 0.1 wt% DAPL solution for 3 min and then contacting with 0.5 wt% SCC solution for a serial polymerization time.) 96
Figure 5-20 Effect of the immersion time of DAPL solution on the pervaporation performance of 90 wt% aqueous ethanol solution through the TFC membranes at 25oC. (Polymerization condition:mPAN support was immersing in 0.1 wt% DAPL solution for a serial immersion time and then contacting with 0.5 wt% SCC solution for 15 sec ) 97





表索引
第一章 緒論
Table 1-1 Driving forces and the two-phase systems separated by membranes for different membrane processes. 4
Table 1-2 Comparison of requirements for low-temperature and thermal polycondensation method. 12

第三章 實驗
Table 3-1 The comparison between operating model of AFM. 38

第四章 理論方法
Table 4-1 Reactant pairs of polyamide active layers. 48
Table 4-2 Model construction parameters of MD simulation for dry state. 49
Table 4-3 Model construction parameters of MD simulation for wet state. 49

第五章 結果與討論
Table 5-1 Effect of the chemical structure on pervaporation separation of 90 wt% ethanol aqueous solution through the polyamide/mPAN thin-film composite membrane at 25oC. 68
Table 5-2 Effect of the chemical structure on surface roughness and surface hydrophilicity of the polyamide/mPAN thin-film composite membrane. 70
Table 5-3 Surface atomic composition of the active layer and their concentration ratios for support and thin-film composite membranes. 77
Table 5-4 o-Ps lifetime ( ) and relative intensity (I3) of free-standing polyamide membranes. 79
Table 5-5 Compare of the fractional free volume (FFV) between dry state and wet state by the PAS and molecular dynamics simulation. 85

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附註 etd-0827110-190444

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 15 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0017-1201201116005428
論文名稱(中文) 電漿聚合有機矽氧膜之孔洞結構控制於氣體分離應用
論文名稱(英文) Control of pore structure in plasma-polymerized SiOCH films for gas separation
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 化學工程研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Chemical Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 羅嘉豪
學號 9502103
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期
論文頁數 139頁
指導教授 指導教授-賴君義
指導教授-李魁然
指導教授-Vincent Rouessac
關鍵字(中) PECVD
SiOCH薄膜
氣體分離膜
超疏水表面
正子煙滅
孔洞結構
關鍵字(英) positron annihilation
pore structure
gas separation membranes
SiOCH films
PECVD
superhydrophobic surface
學科別分類
中文摘要 氣體分離程序中,製備出具有高交聯度結構的透過選擇層及多孔性基材層之複合薄膜,被認定為可提升其氣體透過率並保有原先高選擇性之方法。由於電漿聚合有機矽氧薄膜(SiOCH)擁有緻密結構及可控制之交聯度等特性,其中交聯度的控制可藉由電漿參數(如電漿功率、單體流率、系統壓力等)調整,因此被認為是合適的氣體分離膜,然而SiOCH薄膜非常薄,造成鑑定其內部孔洞大小及分布的困難,特別是在不同深度下。
因此,本論文著重在利用有機矽氧烷單體,以電漿聚合方式沉積SiOCH薄膜於高分子基材上並控制其孔洞大小,最後利用正子煙滅圖譜結合慢速正子束技術分析SiOCH膜內微結構隨薄膜深度之變化。首先,有必要了解正子於不同材料內之煙滅行為,例如有機、無機及有機無機混合材料。實驗結果發現,藉由電漿頻率的調整,SiOCH薄膜型態可分別呈現平整及超疏水表面於13.56 MHz及40 kHz。對於平整SiOCH薄膜而言,基材膜種類、單體化學結構以及電漿功率為影響其孔洞結構之最主要因素,由正子技術分析得知,SiOCH薄膜於多孔性基材上呈現出整體及過度層結構,而多孔的基材表面致使過度層厚度增長且為高孔隙度,因此展現高氣體透過率。當使用具有環狀結構之單體時,隨著電漿功率的增強,使得環狀結構開環的機會增加且導致大孔洞的產生。而針對超疏水膜製備而言,當系統總壓力高於0.6 mbar時,電漿中氣相成核反應會增強進而導致顆粒狀的SiOCH膜生成,其表面呈現大於160o的對水接觸角及僅2o之對水接觸角遲滯效應,實驗中發現,SiOCH薄膜表面碳氫基團及微結構的保留是提升超疏水特性之重要因素。

英文摘要 In gas separation, the fabrication of composite membranes consisting of a permselective thin top layer with high cross-linking structures and a porous substrate has been regarded as a solution for improving gas permeability and simultaneously retaining high selectivity. A plasma-polymerized SiOCH film has been known as an appropriate gas separation membrane because it possesses a dense structure, the crosslinking degree of which could be controlled by adjusting plasma parameters such as plasma power, monomer flow rate, and system pressure. However, the pore size and distribution in SiOCH films, especially in the region of depth profile, are difficult to measure by conventional techniques because of they are very thin.
This thesis is concerned with the control of pore structure in a plasma-polymerized SiOCH film on a polymeric substrate by using an organosilicon source. The positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) coupled to the slow positron beam technique was used to identify the microstructure of SiOCH films as a function of depth. This step required to have a good understanding of the positron annihilation characteristics of different materials such as organic, inorganic, and hybrid materials. Depending on plasma frequency adjustments, SiOCH films with a flat and a superhydrophobic (SHP) surface were fabricated at 13.56 MHz and 40 kHz, respectively. For a flat SiOCH film, substrate type, chemical structure of precursor, and RF power were the major variables that influenced the pore structure. When SiOCH films composed of two layers (bulk and transitions layers) were deposited on porous substrates, they displayed a long transition layer based on the PAS analysis and possessed a high gas permeability due to the surface porosity of the substrate. When the precursor used possessed a cyclic ring structure, an opportunity of a break-up of the cyclic ring would increase with increasing RF power and then induce formation of new big pores. For the preparation of SHP films, when the total pressure was higher than 0.6 mbar, the gas nucleation reaction was enhanced to induce roughness on SiOCH films, and it would show a high WCA of over 160° and a low WCAH of only 2 degrees. Both the hydrocarbon preservation and microstructure were the main factors in improving the surface superhydrophobicity of SiOCH films.

論文目次 ABSTRACT I
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF FIGURES VII
LIST OF TABLES XII
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS XIII
CHAPTER ONE Introduction 1
1.1 Gas Separation Membranes 1
1.2 Amorphous Silica Membranes Prepared by Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition 2
1.3 Structure Characterization by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy 3
1.4 Scope of Thesis 4
CHAPTER TWO Experimental and Theory 6
2.1 Materials 6
2.2 PECVD System 7
2.3 Gas Permeability Performance 9
2.4 Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) 10
2.4-1 Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) 13
2.4-2 Doppler Broadening Energy Spectroscopy (DBES) 15
2.4-3 Slow Positron Beam Technique 18
2.5 Flowchart 21
CHAPTER THREE Positron Annihilation Characteristics in CO2-exposed Zeolite 4A 22
3.1 Abstract 22
3.2 Introduction 23
3.3 Experimental 24
3.3-1 Sample preparation of Zeolite 4 A 24
3.3-2 PALS mesurement 26
3.4 Results and discussion 27
3.4-1 Determination of variation in pore structure in CO2-exposed Zeolite 4A using PALS 27
3.5 Conclusions 38
CHAPTER FOUR Investigation on CO2-induced Plasticization in Polycarbonate Membrane Using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy 40
4.1 Abstract 40
4.2 Introduction 41
4.3 Experimental 42
4.3-1 Preparation of polycarbonate membrane 42
4.3-2 PALS mesurement 43
4.4 Results and discussion 44
4.4-1 Influence of CO2-induced Plasticization on CO2 Permeability in PC Membrane 44
4.4-2 Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) on PC Membrane Plasticized Due to CO2 49
4.5 Conclusions 57
CHAPTER FIVE Influence of Surface Properties of Substrate on Fine Structure of Plasma-Polymerized Film Prepared From Hexamethhyldisiloxane (HMDSO) 58
5.1 Abstract 58
5.2 Introduction 59
5.3 Experimental 60
5.3-1 Materials 60
5.3-2 PECVD process 61
5.4 Results and discussion 61
5.4-1 Substrate Type 61
5.4-2 Growth Mechanism of SiOCH Films on Substrates 64
5.4-3 Gas Separation Performance 67
5.4-4 Structure characterization of SiOCH films on different substrates 68
5.5 Conclusions 76
CHAPTER SIX Pore Structure Control and Characterization of Plasma-Polymerized SiOCH Films Deposited from Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS) 78
6.1 Abstract 78
6.2 Introduction 79
6.3 Experimental 80
6.4 Results and Discussion 81
6.4-1 OMCTS Plasma Parameterss Relationship 81
6.4-2 SEM Images 82
6.4-3 FTIR Analysis 83
6.4-4 Gas Separation Performance 91
6.4-5 Analysis of Fine Structure of Plasma-polymerized SiOCH Films 92
6.5 Conclusions 97
CHAPTER SEVEN Preparation of Super-hydrophobic Surface by Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Using HMDSO Precursor without Fluorine 99
7.1 Abstract 99
7.2 Introduction 100
7.3 Experimental 101
7.3-1 PECVD System 101
7.3-2 Thermal Annealing 103
7.4 Results and Discussion 103
7.4-1 Surface Water Contact Angles as Function of Plasma Parameters 103
7.4-2 Ageing Phenomena of Flat-type and Superhydrophobic-type SiOCH Films 107
7.4-3 Contribution of Hydrocarbon and Roughness to Superhydrophobicity of SiOCH Films 108
7.5 Conclusions 112
CHAPTER EIGHT Conclusions 113
8.1 Conclusions 113
REFERENCES 116



LIST OF FIGURES
CHAPTER ONE
Figure 2 1 Apparatus of PECVD system 8
Figure 2 2 Schematic of PECVD system 8
Figure 2 3 Apparatus for gas permeability measurement 10
Figure 2 4 Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy fills a special niche in the group of techniques for general vacancy defect analysis. Shown are regions accessible to various standard techniques: optical microscopy (OM), neutron scattering (nS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and x-ray scattering (XRS). Positron techniques are both highly sensitive and can resolve the size of atomic vacancies at any depth in a sample. The solid green line outlines the range of interest for studies of fine lines used as electronic interconnects on semiconductor chips [3]. 11
Figure 2 5 The two possible positronium states and their annihilation processes. 12
Figure 2 6 Scheme of typical lifetime in different kind of materials. 13
Figure 2 7 Positron annihilation lifetime spectrum. 14
Figure 2 8 Doppler broadening energy spectrum (DBES, top) and definitions of S, W, and R (3/2 ratio) parameters from DBES. S is ratio of total counts from central region, W is the ratio of wing region, to the total 0.511 MeV annihilation counts, respectively while R is the ratio of 3/2 annihilation [7]. 17
Figure 2 9 Scheme of the positron emission spectrum of a 22Na source. dN+/dE is the number of positrons per energy channel E. The narrow curve centered at 3 eV illustrates the energy distribution after moderation in tungsten [11]. 19
Figure 2 10 Variable monoenergy slow positron beam. A: 50 mCi 22Na positron source, B: W-mesh moderator, C: magnetic field (70 G) coils, D: ExB filter, E: positron accelerator, F: correcting magnets, G: gas inlet, H: positron lifetime detector (MCP) for PAL, I: turbo molecular pump, J: samples, K: sample manipulator, L: ion pump, M: Ge solid state detector, N: lifetime detector (BaF2)[12]. 20

CHAPTER THREE
Figure 3 1 Structure of zeolite 4A: [51] (a) unit cell, (b) cross-section, illustrating small micropores (6.6 Å) and large micropores (11.4 Å). 25
Figure 3 2 Schematic of experimental setup for PAL measurement at different conditions of zeolite 4A. 26
Figure 3 3 Positron annihilation lifetime spectra at 25 oC for zeolite 4A in vacuum, at different CO2 pressures (5 atm and 30 atm), and at ambient condition. 29
Figure 3 4 Variation in intensities (I1 + I3 + I4) and I2 vs. CO2 pressure at different conditions of zeolite 4A. (I1 + I3 + I4) and I2 are represented by square and triangle symbols, respectively. Operating conditions are indicated in different colors  black: different CO2 pressures, blue: vacuum, and red: ambient. 30
Figure 3 5 Variation in lifetime (τ4) and intensity (I4) vs. CO2 pressure at different conditions of zeolite 4A. τ4 and I4 are represented by square and triangle symbols, respectively. Operating conditions are indicated in different colors  black: different CO2 pressures, blue: vacuum, and red: ambient. 33
Figure 3 6 CO2 isothermal sorption in zeolite 4A at 25 oC. 34
Figure 3 7 λo-Ps plotted against density of carbon dioxide. 35
Figure 3 8 Variation in lifetime (τ3) and intensity (I3) vs. CO2 pressure at different conditions of zeolite 4A. τ3 and I3 are represented by square and triangle symbols, respectively. Operating conditions are indicated in different colors  black: different CO2 pressures, blue: vacuum, and red: ambient. 37
Figure 3 9 Diagram for describing interaction between CO2 molecules and positronium. 38

CHAPTER FOUR
Figure 4 1 Effect of operating pressure on CO2 permeability of PC membranes at different test temperatures. 45
Figure 4 2 Sorption isotherms for CO2 in PC membranes at different test temperatures. (Curve fitting of data was obtained based on dual-mode sorption model proposed by Vieth [27]). 47
Figure 4 3 Henry sorption isotherm for CO2 in PC membranes at different test temperatures. 49
Figure 4 4 Distribution of o-Ps lifetime for PC membrane exposed to different conditions (ambient, 5 atm CO2 pressure at different test temperatures, and 5 atm He pressure at 25 oC).. 50
Figure 4 5 Distribution of o-Ps lifetime for PC membrane exposed to different He pressures at 25 oC.. 51
Figure 4 6 Effect of CO2 pressure on o-Ps lifetime (τ3) at (a) 25 oC and (b) 50 oC... 54
Figure 4 7 Effect of CO2 pressure on o-Ps intensity (I3) at (a) 25 oC and (b) 50 oC. 55
Figure 4 8 Diagram of free-volume formation and distribution at different conditions: (a) ambient air, 25 oC; (b) 5atm CO2, 25 oC; (c) 5atm CO2, 50 oC.. 57

CHAPTER FIVE
Figure 5 1 SEM images of substrates 62
Figure 5 2 Surface porosity measurement of substrates with image analysis program. (Green cycle is dependent on shading value in SEM pictures of substrates and represents pores on surface) 63
Figure 5 3 Variation of SiOCH film deposited on MCE-0025 substrate at different deposition times. (In PECVD process, RF power and system pressure were fixed at 200 W and 0.2 torr, respectively) 65
Figure 5 4 Variation of SiOCH film deposited on MCE-022 substrate at different deposition times. (In PECVD process, RF power and system pressure were fixed at 200 W and 0.2 torr, respectively) 66
Figure 5 5 Variation of SiOCH film deposited on PTFE-02 substrate at different deposition times. (In PECVD process, RF power and system pressure were fixed at 200 W and 0.2 torr, respectively) 66
Figure 5 6 Variation of SiOCH film deposited on PAN substrate at different deposition times. (In PECVD process, RF power and system pressure were fixed at 200 W and 0.2 torr, respectively) 67
Figure 5 7 S-E plot for plasma-polymerized SiOCH/substrate composite membranes of different substrates 72
Figure 5 8 R-E plot for plasma-polymerized SiOCH/substrate composite membranes of different substrates. 75
Figure 5 9 S-W plot for plasma-polymerized SiOCH/substrate composite membranes of different substrates. 76

CHAPTER SIX
Figure 6 1 Deposition rate response surface for SiOCH film deposition from OMCTS. 82
Figure 6 2 SEM pictures of plasma-polymerized SiOCH films at different plasma conditions for 45min: (a) MCE pristine (surface) (×30k); (b) 20W (×10k); (c) 50W (×10k); (d) 100W (×10k); (e) 150W (×10k); and (f)150W (surface) (×50k) 83
Figure 6 3 FTIR spectra of (a) OMCTS precursor, SiOCH films deposited at RF power of (b) 20W, (c) 50W, (d) 100W, and (e) 150W for 45 minutes. 85
Figure 6 4 Polymerization ratio, T as function of RF power. 87
Figure 6 5 Deconvolution of Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching band in SiOCH films prepared at 20 W for 45min 88
Figure 6 6 Relative peak area for different Si-O bond structures as function of RF power 89
Figure 6 7 SiC-H3 symmetrical bending band for SiOCH film prepared at RF power of 20 W for 45min. Dashed lines displayed are deconvoluted peaks for T, D, and M components 90
Figure 6 8 Relative peak area for different Si-(CH3)x bond structures as function of RF power 91
Figure 6 9 O2/N2 and CO2/N2 separation performances of plasma-polymerized SiOCH/MCE composite membranes at different plasma power 92
Figure 6 10 S-E plot for plasma-polymerized SiOCH/MCE composite membranes at different plasma power. (Vertical dashed lines indicate boundaries from layer to layer) 94
Figure 6 11 R-E plot for plasma-polymerized SiOCH/MCE composite membranes at different plasma power 95
Figure 6 12 o-Ps annihilation lifetime (τ3) and intensity (I3) of SiOCH/MCE composite membranes at depth of 2 keV. (Lines are drawn through data points for eye-guide only) 96
Figure 6 13 o-Ps annihilation lifetime (τ4) and intensity (I4) of SiOCH/MCE composite membranes at depth of 2 keV. (Lines are drawn through data points for eye-guide only) 97

CHAPTER SEVEN
Figure 7 1 PECVD system 102
Figure 7 2 Water contact angle of SiOCH films prepared at different PM2/PM2+Ar ratios (System total pressure was controlled at 0.18 mbar) 104
Figure 7 3 Water contact angle of SiOCH films prepared at different total pressures. (PM2/PM2+Ar pressure ratio was fixed at 0.83) 105
Figure 7 4 SEM images of SiOCH films at fixed PM2 /PM2+Ar of 0.83. (a) Ptot = 0.18 mbar, (b) Ptot = 0.6 mbar 106
Figure 7 5 Relationship between roughness and water contact angle of SiOCH films 106
Figure 7 6 AFM images of SiOCH films with different roughness. (a) Rms = 86 nm, (b) Rms = 64 nm 107
Figure 7 7 Ageing phenomena for SiOCH films with flat-type and SHP-type in ambient air 108
Figure 7 8 Comparison of FTIR spectra for SiOCH films fabricated by continuous plasma and pulsed plasma. (Plasma power was fixed at 60V for 1min) 109
Figure 7 9 SiOCH films prepared by different plasma types. (Plasma conditions: 60V-1min) 110
Figure 7 10 Water contact angle and C/O ratio of SiOCH films at different annealing temperatures 111
Figure 7 11 SEM images of SiOCH film. (a) Raw, (b) after 400oC treatment 111
Figure 7 12 Surface properties of SHP films after thermal annealing and plasma redeposition. (PECVD II conditions: 60V-10sec, Ptot = 0.18 mar) 112


LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER ONE
Table 2-1 Polymeric membranes used as substrates for plasma deposition. 6

CHAPTER THREE
Table 3 1 o-Ps lifetime and intensity data for zeolite 4A at different conditions. 31

CHAPTER FOUR
Table 4 1 Dual-mode sorption model parameters at different test temperatures. 48

CHAPTER FIVE
Table 5 1 Surface properties of substrates based from image analysis and water contact angle measurements 63
Table 5 2 Deposition rate of SiOCH films on different substrates. 65
Table 5 3 Gas separation performance of SiOCH films on different substrates. 68
Table 5 4 Multilayer analysis of S parameter for SiOCH/substrates composite membranes 71

CHAPTER SIX
Table 6 1 IR band assignments for plasma-polymerized SiOCH film. (ν = stretching, δ = bending, ρ = rocking, a = asymmetric, s = symmetric vibration) 86

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附註 etd-0901110-160144

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系統識別號 U0017-1511201111441020
論文名稱(中文) 應用手勢溝通教學提升發展遲緩幼兒溝通能力成效
論文名稱(英文) The Effects of Applying Gesture Communication Teaching to Improve Communication Ability for Children with Development Delay
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 特殊教育研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Special Education
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 李秋桃
學號 9655001
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 174頁
指導教授 指導教授-任麗華
關鍵字(中) 手勢溝通教學
發展遲緩幼兒
自然環境教學法
溝通能力
關鍵字(英) children with developmentally delayed
communication skills
milieu teaching
gesture communication training
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究目的為探討應用手勢溝通教學提升發展遲緩幼兒溝通能力成效。研究對象為三名22-31個月發展遲緩幼兒。研究方法採用單一受試之A-B-A`倒返實驗設計,共分為基線期、介入期與維持期三階段。自變項為手勢溝通教學方案,依變項為受試者之溝通行為。研究者收集資料結果繪製成曲線圖,並進行視覺分析,用以解釋發展遲緩幼兒接受手勢溝通教學後,其溝通行為的改變。本研究的主要發現如下:
一、手勢溝通教學有助於改善三位發展遲緩幼兒溝通能力。
二、手勢溝通教學對三位發展遲緩幼兒在維持期溝通能力也有成效,尤其是在主動口語表達部份成效最佳。
三、家長與老師均支持手勢溝通教學對三位發展遲緩幼兒在溝通能力的改善。
研究者根據上述結果,分別針對手勢溝通教學及未來相關研究提出具體之建議,提供其他研究者作為參考,並作為發展遲緩幼兒早期療育教學介入的方案之一。

英文摘要 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gesture communication teaching to children with developmentally delayed in their communication ability. Samples were three developmentally delayed children within 22-31 months old. The study used the single-subject experimental A-B-A` design, including 3 steps: The first step was to record children’s baseline communication ability data, the second step was to implement experimental intervention, which was gesture communication teaching, and the third step was to evaluate the improvement and maintaining effect of children’s communication ability. Charts and visual illustrations were utilized to explain the outcome effect.
The major findings were summarized as follow:
1. Gesture communication teaching can improve communication ability for children with developmentally delayed.
2. Gesture communication teaching has maintaining effect for children with developmentally delayed, especially in their oral verbal expression.
3. Parents and teachers all agree that gesture communication teaching improves communication ability for children with developmentally delayed.

According to the findings of this study, suggestions and recommendations are proposed when applying gesture communication teaching as an intervention for children with developmentally delayed.

論文目次 目 次
目次 i
表目次 iii
圖目次 iv
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景與動機------------------------------ 1
第二節 研究目的與待答問題-------------------------- 5
第三節 名詞釋義------------------------------------ 6
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 溝通意義、形式與功能----------------------- 10
第二節 發展遲緩幼兒溝通問題探討------------------- 17
第三節 手勢溝通教學與相關研究--------------------- 26
第三章 研究方法與步驟
第一節 研究架構------------------------------------ 49
第二節 實驗設計------------------------------------ 56
第三節 研究對象------------------------------------ 59
第四節 研究工具------------------------------------ 60
第五節 研究程序------------------------------------ 67
第六節 資料處理------------------------------------ 72
第四章 結果與討論
第一節 觀察者間的一致性---------------------------- 81
第二節 主動口語表達行為之資料分析------------------ 83
第三節 被動口語回應行為之資料分析------------------ 90
第四節 主動手勢表達行為之資料分析------------------ 97
第五節 被動手勢回應行為之資料分析------------------ 104
第六節 口語加手勢行為之資料分析-------------------- 111
第七節 學齡前兒童行為發展量表之資料分析------------ 118
第八節 華語嬰幼兒溝通發展量表之資料分析------------ 120
第九節 社會效度分析-------------------------------- 122
第十節 討論---------------------------------------- 126
第十一節 研究者的省思------------------------------- 132
第五章 研究結論與建議
第一節 結論---------------------------------------- 135
第二節 建議---------------------------------------- 138
參考文獻
中文部分------------------------------------------- 142
英文部分------------------------------------------- 148
附錄
附錄一 家長同意書--------------------------------- 157
附錄二 基本資料表--------------------------------- 158
附錄三 手勢溝通語彙調查表-------------------------- 159
附錄四 溝通行為觀察記錄表------------------------- 160
附錄五 手勢溝通教學單字卡------------------------- 161
附錄六 手勢溝通教學教學手冊----------------------- 162
附錄七 母親訪談紀錄表----------------------------- 166
附錄八 教學活動教案舉例--------------------------- 167

表目次

表2-1 國外與國內手勢教學相關研究一覽表------------------- 48
表3-1 溝通行為操作型定義------------------------------- 52
表3-2-1 研究對象基本資料--------------------------------- 60
表3-2-2 主要照顧者基本資料------------------------------- 60
表3-3 研究工具一覽表----------------------------------- 61
表3-4 手勢溝通教學教學語彙一覽表----------------------- 62
表3-5 手勢溝通教學教學材料----------------------------- 64
表4-1 受試甲之觀察者間一致性信度----------------------- 81
表4-2 受試乙之觀察者間一致性信度----------------------- 82
表4-3 受試丙之觀察者間一致性信度----------------------- 82
表4-4 三位受試者觀察者間一致性信度一覽表---------------- 82
表4-5 個案甲、乙、丙主動口語表達階段內變化分析摘要表--- 89
表4-6 個案甲、乙、丙主動口語表達階段間變化分析摘要表--- 89
表4-7 個案甲、乙、丙被動口語回應階段內變化分析摘要表--- 96
表4-8 個案甲、乙、丙被動口語回應階段間變化分析摘要表--- 96
表4-9 個案甲、乙、丙主動手勢表達階段內變化分析摘要表------ 103
表4-10 個案甲、乙、丙主動手勢表達階段間變化分析摘要表------ 103
表4-11 個案甲、乙、丙被動手勢回應階段內變化分析摘要表--- 110
表4-12 個案甲、乙、丙被動手勢回應階段間變化分析摘要表--- 110
表4-13 個案甲、乙、丙口語加手勢階段內變化分析摘要表------- 117
表4-14 個案甲、乙、丙口語加手勢階段間變化分析摘要表------- 117
表4-15 學齡前兒童行為發展量表(CCDI)發展商數前後測分析--- 118
表4-16 華語嬰幼兒溝通發展量表(臺灣版)前後測分析--------- 120


圖目次
圖3-1 研究架構圖----------------------------------------- 50
圖3-2 治療室佈置圖--------------------------------------- 54
圖3-3 研究進行順序圖------------------------------------- 58
圖3-4 研究流程圖----------------------------------------- 71
圖3-5 各項時間計劃圖------------------------------------- 72
圖4-1 個案甲、乙、丙主動口語表達出現次數曲線圖--------------- 88
圖4-2 個案甲、乙、丙被動口語回應出現次數曲線圖--------------- 95
圖4-3 個案甲、乙、丙主動手勢表達出現次數曲線圖--------------- 102
圖4-4 個案甲、乙、丙被動手勢回應出現次數曲線圖--------------- 109
圖4-5 個案甲、乙、丙口語加手勢表達出現次數曲線圖------------- 116


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系統識別號 U0017-1511201111470798
論文名稱(中文) 兒童保護工作委託民間辦理之合作與監督─ 以家庭處遇服務方案委託為中心
論文名稱(英文) Cooperation and Supervision on Child Protection Service Outsourcing ─ The Case of Family-Based Intervention Plan
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 財經法律研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Financial Economic Law
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 李瓊華
學號 9495605
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 156頁
指導教授 指導教授-李立如
關鍵字(中) 兒童保護工作
行政委託
家庭處遇
監督
行政契約
關鍵字(英) child protection service
family-based intervention plan
supervision
administrative contract
學科別分類
中文摘要 兒童及少年福利法所賦予國家對兒童的照顧責任,除了提供兒童生活扶助及福利措施等各項福利服務外,更具有對兒童的保護義務。從兒童保護工作的流程及其服務內涵來看,從事兒童保護工作運用的手段,不僅包含強制性、干預性,內容也同時提供服務及照顧。地方政府受限於兒童保護社工人力及資源分配,大量運用公私協力模式完成兒童保護工作,本文經由文獻論述有關國內兒童保護工作委託民間辦理之法理及未來法制之發展,同時以訪談實證資料分析行政機關依兒童及少年福利法第43條委託民間辦理家庭處遇方案之監督現況。
本文從行政委託理論及實務經驗分析導出兒童保護工作委託民間辦理係屬「專業參與」,應納入委託行使公權力之範圍,且須符合法律保留原則,取得法律之容許性及授權依據。兒童保護主管機關對於列為兒童保護個案之家庭應提出兒童及少年家庭處遇計畫,係兒童及少年福利法第43條賦予行政機關之權責,立法者也同時在此條文中明確授與主管機關委託民間履行任務之權限基礎。
另外從契約標的及契約內容檢驗「兒童及少年家庭處遇服務方案契約書」,契約內容涉及人民之權利義務並具行政高權性質,因此將系爭契定性為行政契約,並依行政契約法理對家庭處遇服務方案契約之監督條款提出本文之建議。
無論從文獻資料或實證分析,皆顯示兒童保護工作委託民間辦理,在委託單位的監督工作或是雙方合作執行任務,皆有其實務上的難題。合作與監督並重的原則將會是實務的期待,也應該成為行政合作法制發展之方向。基於合作原則,公私部門應以契約形成雙方之法律關係,並於契約內容約定責任分配;另國家應透過管制與監督措施達成維繫公益的原則,並具體實踐國家擔保責任。當行政合作法制發展成熟,屆時不僅得以確立相關原理原則,如何將些原理原則運用在兒童保護工作領域,更值得兒童保護主管機關關注。

英文摘要 Child protection service is a combination of intervention, services and care. In practice, Taiwan’s local governments make use of the public-private partnership model to include more manpower and resources from the private sector for providing better service. The author discusses issues regarding cooperation and supervision of outsourcing child protection service, focusing on the family-based intervention plan.
Based on theoretical analysis and the results of interview with social workers in both private and administrative agencies, this thesis suggests that child protection service outsourcing should be considered as “professional involvement.”, and the “Child and Youth Family-Based Intervention Program Contract” as administrative contract.
For public service outsourcing, cooperation and supervision are equally important. However, governmental supervision seems to be easier said than done, especially when the manpower and resources provided by the private agencies are critical to the network of child protection service. To strike a balance between cooperation and supervision, this thesis advocates that the contract between public and private agencies should include provisions addressing terms and conditions of government supervision.

論文目次 中文摘要 I
AbstractII
誌謝辭 III
目錄 IV
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究範圍及方法 3
第一項 研究範圍 3
第二項 研究方法 4
第三節 研究架構 5
第二章 兒童保護工作之規範與特色 6
第一節 家庭自治與國家介入 6
第一項 家庭自治概念的發展演進 6
第二項 兒童人權發展與兒童保護法制 10
第二節 兒童及少年福利法規範下的保護工作 13
第一項 責任通報 13
第二項 成案調查 15
第三項 保護安置 17
第四項 家庭處遇 20
第三節 兒童保護工作的特色 24
第一項 既干預又給付的行政性格 24
第二項 公私法交錯競合 25
第三項 組織間整合的重要性 26
第四項 民間深入參與 26
第四節 小結 27
第三章 兒童保護工作委託民間辦理之法理與現況 29
第一節 兒童保護工作委託民間辦理之現況 29
第一項 民間參與兒童保護工作之發展歷程 29
第二項 兒童保護工作委託民間辦理之現況 30
第三項 家庭處遇服務委託民間辦理之現況 31
第二節 兒童保護工作委託民間辦理之法理基礎 37
第一項 行政委託相關理論 38
第二項 行政委託與法律保留原則 41
第三節 行政委託理論在兒童保護工作之運用 41
第一項 兒童保護工作的本質 42
第二項 民間專業參與兒童保護工作 42
第三項 兒童保護工作委託辦理之容許性 45
第四節 小結 46
第四章 兒童保護工作委託民間辦理之監督機制 47
第一節 監督機制之建立 48
第二節 家庭處遇服務委外的監督現況分析 52
第一項 個案工作之監督 52
第二項 第三人權益維護之監督 55
第三項 重大兒童虐待事件處理機制 56
第四項 合作關係重於契約關係 59
第五項 各縣市政府監督密度不同 60
第三節 監督的難題 61
第一項 兒童保護工作委託民間辦理的監督難題 61
第二項 家庭處遇服務委外的監督難題 63
第四節 小結 63
第五章 兒童保護工作委託民間辦理法制化的再思考 65
第一節 公私協力契約法制 65
第一項 政府業務委託契約之定性 65
第二項 政府業務委託契約之法律適用 70
第三項 現行法律框架下之合作與管制 74
第二節 委託辦理家庭處遇服務方案之契約評析 76
第一項 家庭處遇服務方案契約定性 76
第二項 接受家庭處遇計畫者之權利保護與救濟 78
第三項 契約監督條款 80
第三節 行政合作法制之發展 82
第一項 建制行政合作法制之原則 83
第二項 建制行政合作法制之重點 83
第四節 小結 85
第六章 結論與建議 86
參考文獻 90
一、中文文獻 90
二、英文文獻 96
附錄一:兒童及少年保護工作流程 98
附錄二:家庭處遇服務方案契約書 99
附錄三:深度訪談記錄 114

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孫迺翊,社會行政程序法之不確定法律概念與判斷餘地─以兒童及少年福利法第36條為例,行政法實務與理論學術研討會,國立臺灣大學法律學院公法研究中心,2010年11月。
孫迺翊,社會福利服務契約法制初探─從我國社會福利機構「公設民營」之’經驗談起,月旦法學雜誌,第177期,2010年2 月。
高鳳仙,民事保護令制度之救濟範圍解析,台灣國際法季刊,第5卷第1期,2008年3月。
張祥暉,政府採購法修法後之問題探討─以九十一年二月修頒版本為核心,台灣本土法學雜誌,第47期,2003年 7 月。
張菁芬,解析高風險家庭的服務策略,社區發展季刊,第114期,2006年6月。
陳春生,行政法學上之風險決定與行政規則─以規範具體化行政規則,台灣本土法學雜誌,第5期,1999年12月。
陳景發,論行政調查之法的統制,警大法學論集,創刊號,1996年3月。
陳景發,論行政調查與犯罪偵查,警大法學論集,第3期,1998年3月。
陳愛娥,「政府業務委託民間辦理的法律規制」─公私部門合作法制的建構,月旦法學教室,第8期,2003 年6月。
陳櫻琴,公共工程締約之法規範控制,月旦法學雜誌,第18期,1996年11月。
彭淑華,「寧缺毋濫」?「寧濫毋缺」?兒童少年保護工作人員機構安置決策困境之研究,中華心理衛生學刊,第2期,2007年5月。
彭淑華,以家庭處遇為基礎的兒童保護工作之檢視,兒童及少年福利期刊,內政部兒童局發行,第9期,2005年10月。
焦興鎧,家庭暴力及性侵害防治之政府職能分析,2008台灣公共治理研究中心年度研討會─公共治理與社會福利會議紀實,行政院研究發展考核委員會,2008年10月。
程明修,公私協力契約與行政合作法─以德國聯邦行政程序法之改革構想為中心,興大法學,第7期,2010年4月。
程明修,行政受託人之選任應適用政府採購法或行政程序法,月旦法學教室,第21期,2004年7月。
程明修,行政法上之預防原則─食品安全風險管理手段之擴張,月旦法學雜誌,第167期,2009年4月。
詹鎮榮,「裁罰性」不利處分之概念及其範圍界定─兼論菸害防制法第二三條「戒菸教育」之法律性質,台灣本土法學雜誌,第93期,2007年4月。
詹鎮榮,民營化後國家影響與管制義務之理論與實踐─以組織私法化與任務私人化之基本型為中心,東吳大學法律學報,第15卷第1期,2003年8月。
詹鎮榮,社會國原則,月旦法學教室,第42期,2006年4月。
雷文玫,國家、父母與兒童少年權益間的拉鋸─兒童及少年福利法修法評析,月旦法學雜誌,第102期,2003年11月。
雷文玫,發包福利國?政府委託民間半理福利服務責信架構之研究,兒童福利期刊,第2期,2002年2月。
趙善如,提昇兒童少年保護個案家庭處遇組織間合作效能之要素:從實務工作者觀點探討之,臺大社工學刊,第20期,2009年12月。
劉淑瓊,績效品質與消費者權益保障:論社會服務契約委託的責信課題,社會政策與社會工作學刊,第2期,2005年9月。
蔡茂寅,行政委託與法律保留原則,月旦法學教室,第83期,2002年4月。
鄧學仁,評親屬法之修正,月旦民商法,第17期,2007年9月。
賴月蜜,兒童及少年福利法合併修法之緣由與歷程,社區發展季刊,第103期,2003年9月。
戴瑀如,身分行為的特殊性,月旦法學教室,第93期,2010年7月。
謝榮堂,我國法制上公務員之定義與適用範圍,軍法專刊,第56卷第3期,2010 年6月。
(四)學位論文
許登科,德國擔保國家理論為基礎之公私協力(ÖPP)法制─對我國促參法之啟示,國立台灣大學法律學研究所博士論文,2008年。
陸敏清,國家擔保責任於長期照護之實現,國立臺北大學法律學系博士論文,2010年。
楊雲驊,行政委託制度之研究,國立台灣大學法律學研究所碩士論文,1992年。
(五)政府出版品
宋麗玉、施教裕主持,內政部兒童局委託「高風險家庭服務策略與處遇模式之研究」成果報告,2006年。
李宗勳、黃一峰主持,行政院人事行政局專題委託「建立政府業務委託民間辦理監督機制之研究」研究報告,2003年。
李震山主持,行政院國家科學委員會補助專題研究「國家將行政任務課予私人履行之公法問題研究」成果報告,2002年。
林子儀主持,行政院研究發展考核委員會委託「行政檢查業務委託民間辦理法制之研究」,1998年。
陳愛娥主持,法務部委託研究「行政契約之研究─以代替行政處分之行政契約與委託行使公權力之行政契約為探討對象」,2003年。
彭淑華主持,內政部委託「發展兒童及少年保護個案家庭處遇服務模式之研究」研究報告,2006年。
彭淑華主持,內政部委託研究「發展兒童及少年保護個案家庭處遇服務模式之研究」研究報告,2006年。
劉兆隆主持,行政院研究發展考核委員會委託「促進非營利組織與地方政府策略夥伴關係的建構」研究報告,2009年。
劉宗德主持,行政院經濟建設委員會亞太營運協調服務中心委託「政府業務委託民間辦理類型及程序」研究報告,2000年。
劉淑瓊、彭淑華主持,行政院研究發展考核委員會委託「社會福利引進民間資源及競爭機制之研究」研究報告,2007年。
鄭麗珍、林子倫主持,行政院研究發展考核委員會委託「兒童及少年保護體系之政府職能分析」研究報告,2008年。
二、英文文獻
Coleman, Doriane Lambelet ; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Campbell, Sarah Keeton, Where And How To Draw The Line Between Reasonable Corporal Punishment And Abuse., 73-SPG LAW & CONTEMP. PROBS. 107,136-139(2010).
Krenson, Amanda L., Reining In The Parental-Discipline Defense :Addressing The Need For Standards That Work To Protect Indiana’s Children., 44 VAL. U. L. REV. 611,623(2010).
Moore, Dan, Reconciling Normative Dissonance in Canada and New Zealand: Comparing the Judicial and Political Paths to Children’s Rights Implementation., 68 U.T. FAC. L. REV. 33, 48(2010).
Sankaran, Vivek S., Parens Patriae Run Amuck: The Child Welfare System’s Disregard For The Constitutional Rights Of Nonoffending Parents., 82 TEMP. L. REV. 55,68-69(2009).
Shmueli, Benjamin, Love And The Law, Children Against Mothers And Fathers: Or ,What’s Love Got To Do With It?, 17 DUKE J. GENDER L. & POLICY 144-145(2010).
Smith, Jennifer K., Putting Children Last: How Washington Has Failed To Protect The Dependent Child's Best Interest In Visitation. , 32 SEATTLE U. L. REV. 769,776(2009).
附註 etd-0905111-192656

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系統識別號 U0017-2705201010461911
論文名稱(中文) 言中之聖言:奧古斯丁《論教師》的研究
論文名稱(英文) The Word of Words: A Study of Augustine’s On the Teacher
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 宗教研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate School of Religion
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 游瑩萱
學號 9459001
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 116頁
指導教授 指導教授-歐力仁
關鍵字(中) 語詞
論教師
聖言
語言
光照
認識論
教師
心靈哲學
關鍵字(英) the Word
illumination
the Teacher
epistemology
philosophy of mind
language
word
De Magistro
學科別分類
中文摘要 二十世紀以降,西方哲學開始強烈關注「語言」問題,觸及各種主題的奧古斯丁,亦曾對「語言」問題作過闡述。而奧古斯丁在討論語言的時候,絕不是單單面對「語言」問題;在語言問題的背後,更重要的是神學、信仰、與教牧的問題。
《論教師》(De Magistro / On the Teacher)是奧古斯丁皈依基督宗教後,第一本集中討論語詞及符號的作品,亦是他開始將語詞問題連結於神學發展的作品。《論教師》的內容是從語言哲學的討論轉至心靈哲學,進而提出光照說(theory of illumination)。奧古斯丁這方面思想的連結和推展,十分值得探究,卻甚少被學者關注,特別是在漢語學界。
奧古斯丁是透過對語詞、符號的討論,轉向探討心靈活動、並進而提出基督做為人認識的中介力量。由此奧古斯丁提出了基督宗教的認識論,回應了懷疑論認為人不得認識真理的問題。另一方面,人言對照聖言,而能尋回其本來應有的意義。因此從根本上來說,聖言不僅是人溝通的條件,同時也是目的。從光照說的角度來看,聖言就作為人言溝通的條件;而從人言應該要指向聖言的面向來說,聖言成為人言的目的。
英文摘要 Since the twentieth century, Western philosophy has turned intensively to the problem of “language.” Augustine in the past, discussed many different issues, must concerned about the issues. However he did not just discuss the problem of “language” but are meant to solve problems related to theology, faith, and pastoral counseling.
De Magistro is Augustine’s first work after his conversion to Christianity. It focuses on the discussion of words and signs. Furthermore, in it he links the problem of “language” to theology. De Magistro begins from a philosophical discussion of language, and proceeds in proposing a theory of illumination. How Augustine deals with the connection and inference between “language” and “illumination” is worth investigating. However, few scholars have taken notice of this question, especially in the Chinese academia.
Through the analysis of words and signs, Augustine discusses the activities of the mind, and proposes that Christ is the medium of our knowledge. Thereby, Augustine establishes the epistemology of Christianity, and rejects the skeptics who thought that man can’t know the truth. On the other hand, if we make a contrast between men’s words and the Word, we will be able to find the original meaning of wo/men’s words. In other words, the Word is essentially not only the condition but also the purpose of communication among wo/men. From the perpective of illumination, the Word is the condition of communication. And from that same aspect wo/men’s words ought to signify the Word. The Word ought to be the purpose of wo/men’s speaking.
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝辭 iii
目錄 v
導論 - 1 -
第一節 問題意識與研究動機 - 1 -
第二節 研究主題背景 - 4 -
(一)奧古斯丁語詞理論發展與背景概述 - 4 -
(二)《論教師》寫作背景概述 - 8 -
第三節 研究方法 - 10 -
(一)現有研究 - 10 -
(二)論述方式 - 11 -
(三)各章節概要 - 12 -
第一章 溝通的進行方式 - 17 -
第一節 言說的目的 - 17 -
(一)奧古斯丁的提問與假定 - 17 -
(二)天賜的質疑與釐清 - 18 -
第二節 符號的本質和種類 - 20 -
(一)對話描述的現象 - 20 -
(二)概念的歸納與解析 - 22 -
第三節 話語的表達 - 24 -
(一)符號指涉符號 - 24 -
(二)符號指涉事物 - 28 -
第四節 直接展示事物 - 30 -
(一)「行走」之例 - 30 -
(二)「捕鳥術」之例 - 32 -
小結 - 34 -
第二章 溝通的障礙 - 36 -
第一節 心、口不一 - 36 -
(一)現象舉例與描述 - 36 -
(二)阻撓語言溝通的因素 - 38 -
第二節 直接展示的含混 - 43 -
(一)「行走」之例 - 43 -
(二)「捕鳥術」之例 - 47 -
第三節 語言與墮落 - 48 -
(一)創造敘事的寓意註釋 - 49 -
(二)墮落造成分離 - 51 -
小結 - 54 -
第三章 溝通的心靈活動 - 55 -
第一節 轉向心靈 - 55 -
第二節 感知與記憶 - 58 -
(一)物質事物的感知 - 59 -
(二)理智事物的感知 - 61 -
第三節 判斷與記憶 - 65 -
(一)衡量的心靈活動 - 65 -
(二)相信與想像的心靈活動 - 69 -
第四節 心語與記憶 - 72 -
(一)「內在語詞」概念的醞釀 - 72 -
(二)外在語詞、內在語詞與記憶 - 75 -
小結 - 77 -
第四章 溝通的可能性 - 79 -
第一節 基督真光的照耀 - 79 -
(一)對柏拉圖《美諾篇》悖論與回憶說的運用與回應 - 80 -
(二)對柏拉圖《理想國》光喻與洞喻的運用與回應 - 83 -
第二節 基督真教師的內在教導 - 86 -
(一)對普羅提諾「轉向內心」的運用與回應 - 86 -
(二)聖言與心語的交會 - 90 -
第三節 「言」指向「聖言」 - 93 -
(一)重思「人言」的意義 - 93 -
(二)「聖言」是「人言」的榜樣 - 95 -
(三)「人言」有「聖言」的肖像 - 97 -
小結 - 99 -
結論 - 101 -
論文總結 - 101 -
可再發展之向度 - 105 -
參考文獻 - 107 -

表目錄
表一 語詞歧異性的分類 -42-
參考文獻  奧古斯丁著作
一、拉丁文部分
De Magistro ∙Über den Lehrer. Trans. Burkhard Mojsisch, Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam jun., 1998.
二、英文部分
Augustine: Earlier Writings. Trans. John S. Burleigh. Philadelphia The Westminister Press 1953.
Concerning the Teacher. Trans. George G.. Leckie, New York: Appleton-century –crofts, 1938.
Confessions. Translated by William Watts. Edited by G. P. Goold, The Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard Univrsity, 1999.
On Gensis: A Refutation of Manichees, Unfinished Literal Commentary on Gensis, the Literal Meaning of Gensis. Trans. Edmund Hill. Edited by John E. Hill. Vol. 13, The Works of Saint Augustine: A Translation for the 21st Century. New York: New City, 2002.
The Confessions of St. Augustine. Translated by F. J. Sheed. Aew York: Sheed & Ward, 1954.
The Trinity. Translated by translation introduction, and notes. Edited by O.S.A. John E. Rotelle. Vol. 5, The Worls Pf Saint Augustine: A Translation for the 21st Century. New York: New City 1996.
The Retractation. Trans. Mary Inez Bogan (The Fathers of the Church Volume 60), the Catholic University of America Press, 1968.
三、中文部分
《懺悔錄》,周士良 譯,台北:商務,1998。
《論三位一體》,周偉馳 譯,上海:人民出版社,2005。
《論靈魂及其起源》,石敏敏 譯,北京:中國社會科學,2004。
 其他相關著作
一、英文資料
Battenhouse, Roy W., A Companion to the Study of St. Augustine. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1979.
Bruce, Bubacz. St. Augustine's Theory of Knowledge : A Contemporary Analysis. New York: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1981.
Burnyeat, M. F. "Wittgenstein and Augustine De Magistro." In The Augustinian Tradition, edited by Gareth B. Matthews, xix, 398 p. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
Cary, Phillip. Augustine’s Invention of the Inner Self. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Fitzgerald, Allan, ed. Augustine through the Ages: An Encyclopedia. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1999.
Gilson, Etienne. The Christian Philosophy of Saint Augustine. New York: Random House, 1960.
Howie, George. St. Augustine: On Education. Chicago: Regnery, 1969.
King, Edward B. "St. Augustine, Genesis and the Origin of Language." In Saint Augustine and His Influence in the Middle Ages. Sewanee: The Press of the University of the South, 1988.
Markus, R. A. Augustine- A Collection of Critical Essays. New York: Anchor Books Doubleday& Company, 1972.
Matthews, Alfred Warren. The Development of St. Augustine from Neoplatonism to Christianity 386 –391 A. D.. Washington: University Press of America, 1980.
Matthews, Gareth B., ed. The Augustinian Tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
O’Daly, Gerard. Augustine’s Philosophy of Mind. Berkley: University of California Press, 1987.
O’meara, John J. The Young Augustine: The Growth of St. Augustine’s Mind up to His Conversion. London: Longmans, 1954.
Rist, John M. Augustine- Ancient Thought Baptized. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Stock, Brian. Augustine the Reader: Meditation, Self-knowledge, and the Ethics of Interpretation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996.
Stump, Eleonore and Kretzmann, Norman. The Cambridge Companion to Augustine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Watson, Gerard. Saint Augustine's Theory of Language. Edited by Richard Leo Enos & Roger Thompson ET AL., The Rethoric of Augustine of Hippo -De Dortrina Christiana Rhetoric & the Search for a Distinctly Christian Rhetoric. Texas: Baylor University Press, 2008.
二、中文資料
(1)中文譯著
Cayré, F.(蓋雷),《奧斯定哲學導論》,劉俊餘譯,台南:聞道出版社,1986。
Bardy, Gustave(巴爾迪),《奧斯定傳》,吳宗文譯,台南:聞道出版社,1973。
Furley, David(福箂),勞特利奇哲學史第二卷-《從亞里斯多德到奧古斯丁》,馮俊譯,北京:中國人民大學出版社,2004。
Mommsen, T.(蒙森),《羅馬史》,李稼年譯,北京:商務印書館,2004。
Plato(柏拉圖),《柏拉圖全集》,王曉朝譯,台北:左岸文化,2003。
Plato(柏拉圖),《柏拉圖理想國》,侯健譯,台北:聯經出版社,1980。
Portalié, Eugène(包達理),《奧斯定思想概論》,劉俊餘譯,台南:聞道出版社,1986。
Umberto Eco(翁貝爾托・埃科),《符號學與語言哲學》,王天清譯,天津:百花文藝出版社,2005。
Yudkin, Jeremy (杰里米・尤德金),《歐洲中世紀音樂》,余志剛譯,北京:中央音樂學院出版社,2005。
(2)專書
丁福寧,《語言、存有與形上學》,台北:台灣商務,2006。
王曉朝主編,《信仰與理性-古代基督教教父思想家評傳》,北京:東方出版社,2001。
,《教父學研究-文化視野下的教父哲學》,保定:河北大學出版社,2003。
李幼蒸,《理論符號學導論》,北京:社會科學文獻出版社,1999。
汪子嵩等著,《希臘哲學史》,北京:人民出版社,1997。
吳飛,《自殺與美好生活》,上海:上海三聯書店,2007。
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系統識別號 U0017-2705201010463195
論文名稱(中文) 聚碳酸酯薄膜微結構之改變對二氧化碳氣體透過行為之影響
論文名稱(英文) Effect of the micro-structure variation on carbon dioxide permeation behavior of PC membrane
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 化學工程研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Chemical Engineering
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 劉勝文
學號 9671023
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 69頁
指導教授 指導教授-賴君義
指導教授-李魁然
關鍵字(中) 熱處理
塑化效應
自由體積
正子湮滅光譜分析技術
氣體透過
關鍵字(英) plasticization
free-volume
gas permeability
Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS)
heat-treated
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究以乾式相轉換法製備出緻密的聚碳酸酯(Polycarbonate,PC)氣體分離膜,再經由不同溫度進行熱處理,研究中主要藉由正子湮滅光譜(Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy,PAS)分析技術探討PC薄膜經熱處理後的物理結構變化及不同氣體環境下對氣體透過效能與塑化效應之影響。
藉由SEM、FTIR、DSC及UMTM測試發現,PC緻密薄膜經由不同溫度熱處理後,其表面型態結構、玻璃轉移溫度(Glass transition temperature,Tg)及機械性質並未有明顯地差異,但卻呈現不同的氣體透過效能,可見薄膜內仍有微結構變化是無法從傳統儀器觀察,因此本研究利用「正子湮滅光譜分析技術」,以分子的尺度觀察PC高分子薄膜經熱處理後,在不同氣體環境下膜內自由體積的變化。實驗中發現在常壓時,不管是否經過熱處理,薄膜內的自由體積分佈均呈現單一分佈,但經由二氧化碳加壓後,於一般o-Ps lifetime量測範圍(1~5 ns)會呈現雙孔洞分佈,因此定義o-Ps lifetime小於1.7 ns的範圍稱為小孔洞(τ3,small)及而大於1.7 ns的範圍稱為大孔洞(τ3,big);但於惰性氣體氦氣的加壓環境下,隨著壓力增加,其自由體積並無明顯變化,故推測此現象為二氧化碳之塑化效應所導致。藉由氣體透過效能及正子湮滅光譜數據分析比較,經二氧化碳加壓後之PC薄膜,其氣體透過行為是以大孔洞(τ3,big)為主導。
從實驗結果中也發現PC薄膜於較多殘餘溶劑含量下,會呈現較明顯的塑化現象且在高壓下有較大的自由體積,但是經由高於Tg熱處理後,PC薄膜內殘餘溶劑含量的減少,使得塑化效應降低,隨著壓力增加則以壓縮效應為主導,並使得二氧化碳透過係數明顯下降。

英文摘要 In this study, dense homogeneous polycarbonate (PC) membranes were prepared via a dry-phase inversion method at different heat treatments and were tested for pure gas permeability of carbon dioxide (CO2). The effect of different gas pressure conditions as well as different heat treatments on the morphologies of dense PC membranes and on their gas permeability performances was studied with the use of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS).
There was no noticeable effect on the surface morphologies, chemical structures, glass transition temperatures (Tg), and mechanical properties of the different heat-treated PC membranes, as shown by the SEM, FTIR, DSC, and UMTM data, respectively. However, these heat-treated PC membranes had different gas permeability performances, so we could not characterize the change in their structure at the molecular scale by conventional instruments. The PAS was utilized to detect the free-volume size and the intensity of the heat-treated PC membranes at different gas pressure conditions. The free-volume in the PC membranes has monomodal distribution at atmospheric pressure environment, whereas bimodal free-volume distributions were attained at carbon dioxide pressure environment. The plasticization of carbon dioxide may lead to this phenomenon because there was almost no change in the free-volume size of the PC membranes with increasing pressure at inert gas (helium, He) pressure environment. Based on the analysis of the PAS data in regard to gas permeability performances, it seemed that big pores predominantly controlled the carbon dioxide permeation behavior.
The results showed that the free-volume and the gas permeability of the PC membranes increased with increasing amounts of residual solvent at high carbon dioxide pressure. For the PC membranes with low residual solvent contents above Tg, the gas permeability performance could be affected significantly by antiplasticization, and the free-volume and the gas permeability of the PC membranes decreased with increasing carbon dioxide pressure because the compression effect was predominant.

論文目次 目 錄

摘要 I
英文摘要 III
致謝 V
目錄 VII
圖索引 Ⅹ
表索引 ⅩII

第一章 文獻回顧 1
1-1 氣體分離薄膜之發展 1
1-2 薄膜分離程序 2
1-3 氣體分離膜之塑化效應 3
1-3.1 化學改質薄膜 6
1-3.2 熱處理薄膜 7
1-3.3 電漿改質薄膜 7
1-4 正子湮滅光譜分析技術 8
1-5 研究目的與動機 9

第二章 實驗 11
2-1 實驗藥品 11
2-2 實驗儀器 12
2-3 實驗步驟及原理 14
2-3.1 PC緻密薄膜製備 14
2-3.2 熱處理PC薄膜 14
2-3.3 熱性質分析(DSC) 14
2-3.4 機械性質測試 15
2-3.5 PC薄膜殘餘溶劑鑑定 15
2-3.5 掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM) 16
2-3.5 傅氏紅外線光譜儀(FTIR) 17
2-3.8 正子湮滅時間光譜 (PALS) 18
2-3.9 氣體透過效能測試 (GPA) 21
2-3.10 實驗流程 23

第三章 結果與討論 24
3-1 熱處理對PC緻密薄膜性質之影響 24
3-1.1 熱處理溫度對PC緻密薄膜氣體透過效能之影響 24
3-1.2 熱處理溫度對PC緻密薄膜結構型態之影響 25
3-1.3 熱處理溫度對PC緻密薄膜化學組成之影響 27
3-1.4 熱處理溫度對PC緻密薄膜物性及機械性質之影響 28
3-1.5 熱處理溫度對PC緻密薄膜自由體積之影響 29
3-2 不同氣體壓力環境對PC薄膜結構變化之影響響 33
3-2.1 二氧化碳對PC緻密薄膜自由體積之影響 34
3-2.2 氦氣對PC緻密薄膜自由體積之影響 36
3-3 塑化效應對PC薄膜結構變化與氣體透過效能之影響影響 38
3-3.1 熱處理對PC緻密薄膜殘餘溶劑之影響 38
3-3.2 塑化效應對PC緻密薄膜自由體積之影響 40

第四章 結論 48

參考文獻 49

作者自述 58



圖索引

第一章
Fig. 1-1 Solution-diffusion mechanism and schematic representation of two-phase system separated by a membrane 3

第二章
Fig. 2-1 Calibration curve used to calculate amount of residual solvent 16

Fig. 2-2 Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) 19

Fig. 2-3 Normalized positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectra 21


Fig. 2-4 Apparatus of the gas permeation 22

Fig. 2-5 Experimental flow chart 23

第三章
Fig. 3-1 Effect of annealing temperature on (a) CO2 and (b) N2 permeability (tested at 5 atm and 35°C) 25

Fig. 3-2 Morphologies of PC membrane: Surface (×100k) (a) raw, after heat treatment at (b) 80°C and (c) 180°C; Cross-

section (×30k) (d) raw, after heat treatment (e) 80°C and (f) 180°C 26

Fig. 3-3 FTIR-ATR spectra of PC membranes (a) raw, after heat treatment at (b) 80°C and (c) 180°C 27

Fig. 3-4 o-Ps lifetime (a) τ3,small and (b) τ3,big of PC membranes annealed at different temperatures and 5 atm CO2

pressure 31

Fig. 3-5 Intensity (a) I3,small and (b) I3,big of PC membranes annealed at different temperatures and 5 atm CO2

pressure 32

Fig. 3-6 The distributions of o-Ps lifetime for PC membranes annealed at different temperatures and 5 atm CO2 pressure

33
Fig. 3-7 The distributions of o-Ps lifetime for PC membranes at different CO2 pressures 35

Fig. 3-8 The distributions of o-Ps lifetime for PC membranes at different He pressures 38

Fig. 3-9 Effect of annealing temperature on amount of residual solvent in PC membranes 39

Fig. 3-10 Effect of annealing temperature on CO2 permeability in PC membranes at 35oC 41

Fig. 3-11 (a) o-Ps lifetime τ3,small and (b) relative intensity I3,small vs. CO2 pressure for PC membranes annealed at

different temperatures. (τ3,small is directly correlated to free volume and hole size by equation (2-1)) 42

Fig. 3-12 (a) o-Ps lifetime τ3,big and (b) relative intensity I3,big vs. CO2 pressure for PC membranes annealed at

different temperatures. (τ3,big is directly correlated to free volume and hole size by equation (2-1)) 43

Fig. 3-13 The distributions of o-Ps lifetime for PC membranes at different CO2 pressures 44

Fig. 3-14 The distributions of o-Ps lifetime for PC membranes annealed at 80oC and different CO2 pressures 45

Fig. 3-15 The distributions of o-Ps lifetime for PC membranes annealed at 180oC and different CO2 pressures 45

Fig. 3-16 (a) o-Ps lifetime τ3 and (b) relative intensity vs. He pressure I3 for PC membranes annealed at different

temperatures. (τ3 is directly correlated to free volume and hole size by following equation (2-1)) 47

表索引

第三章
Table 3-1 Infrared frequencies and band assignments 28

Table 3-2 Tg and mechanical properties of PC membranes annealed at different temperatures 28

Table 3-3 o-Ps lifetime of PC membranes annealed at different temperatures and CO2 pressures 35

Table 3-4 o-Ps lifetime of PC membranes annealed at different temperatures and He pressures 37



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附註 etd-0729109-114449

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系統識別號 U0017-2705201010465544
論文名稱(中文) 同志收養未成年子女之研究 -理論基礎與政策方向-
論文名稱(英文) Same-Sex Adoption--Theory and Policy
校院名稱 中原大學
系所名稱(中) 財經法律研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Financial Economic Law
學年度 98
學期 1
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 林孝穎
學號 9395114
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 179頁
指導教授 指導教授-李立如
關鍵字(中) 家庭權
第二父母收養
同志收養
性傾向
子女最佳利益
關鍵字(英) family right
second-parent adoption
same-sex adoption
the best interest of the child
sexual orientation
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文之問題意識 ,在於討論同志收養未成年子女,是否違背子女最佳利益?本文所採取的研究方法,因為包括法律釋義學、文獻分析法及比較研究法,除收集國內的期刊論文外,並會討論美國涉及同志收養之法律、案例及期刊。
藉討論同志收養之議題,本文希望達成三個目的。第一,因為同志的性傾向不應該是法院允許收養與否的決定性因素,所以應著重在收養人照顧未成年子女的能力。第二,為使法院能落實子女最佳利益,本文嘗試提出建議,以協助法院能中立、謹慎審視收養注意事項,避免法院受到社會偏見影響。第三,既然同志收養未必不合子女最佳利益,本文希望對同志收養的未來政策方向提出建議。
至於研究之架構,第一章緒論描述本論文研究的動機與目的,並說明本題目之研究範圍與研究架構。第二章討論桃園地院的收養裁定及收養法制基礎,以突顯同志收養所引發的爭議。但是因為我國實務對同志收養尚無明確的態度,所以第三章討論美國同志收養之實務與學說,提供我國反思同志收養的素材。至於第四章則是討論對美國最高法院產生部分影響力的寬容理論;受寬容理論影響,最高法院對同志開始顯示寬容、尊重及接受的態度,此改變啟發本文主張我國應保障同志憲法上的家庭權及收養權。第五章,則討論如何落實子女最佳利益並對同志收養政策的未來方向提出建議。最後,第六章則總結上述之內容。
依據本文研究之結果,為降低子女最佳利益的不確定性,主張法院應運用社會科學資訊、增加專業人員的參與及詳細審查各項要素。另外,對同志收養政策則有四項建議:第一,關於同志單身收養政策,法院如以同志性傾向作為駁回收養的唯一理由,法院應提出證據。第二,本文建議增加同志收養的類型(第二父母收養)。第三,立法院應盡速通過人權基本法草案。第四,落實性別平等教育法。


英文摘要 The research question of the dissertation lies in discussing whether or not same-sex adoption is against the best interest of the child? Because the methods of the research used in this paper are legal dogmatics, document analysis and comparative study, besides collecting domestic periodicals and dissertations, we will discuss American laws, periodicals and cases about same-sex adoption.
By discussing the topic about same-sex adoption, the dissertation hopes to achieve three purposes. First, because sexual orientation of homosexuals is not a decisive factor in whether courts shall grant adoption, we should center on adopters’ abilities to take care of children. Second, in order to make courts carry out the best interest of the child, I try to make suggestions to help courts consider all the conditions about adoption in a neutral and cautious way and keep courts from social prejudice. Third, since same-sex adoption is not necessary against the best interest of the child, this paper desires to make suggestions about future policy of same-sex adoption.
As to the framework of the study, the first chapter “ Preface” describes the motive and aim of the research and illustrates the scope and structure of the subject. In chapter 2, we will discuss the adoption ruling decided by Taoyuan district court and the law foundation about adoption to stress the controversy about same-sex adoption. But, because courts’ attitudes toward same-sex adoption are unclear, in chapter 3 I will discuss American practices and theories to supply us materials which we can introspect. As regards the fourth chapter, we will talk about “Tolerance Theory” which has a partial influence on United States Supreme Court. Affected by “Tolerance Theory”, the Supreme Court has begun to display tolerance, respect and acceptance for gays and lesbians. This change inspires me to contend we should protect gays’ and lesbians’ constitutional family right and adoption right. So far as chapter 5 is concerned, we will discuss how to fulfill the best interest of the child and make suggestions about future policy about same-sex adoption. Finally, the sixth chapter “Conclusion” sum ups the contents above.
According to the research result, for reducing the uncertainty of the best interest of the child, this paper recommends courts shall use social science studies, increase participations of professionals and checks factors in detail. In addition, there are four suggestions about same-sex adoption policy: first, with reference to single same-sex adoption, if the only reason courts overrule adoption petitions is homosexuals’ sexual orientation, courts should give evidences; second, this study suggests increasing the type of same-sex adoption (second-parent adoption); third, the Legislative Yuan should pass the draft of “Human Rights Basic Code” as soon as possible; fourth, we should carry out Gender Equity Education Act.


論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
誌謝辭 IV
目錄 V
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與研究目的 1
第二節 研究範圍、方法與限制 2
第三節 本文架構 4
第二章 同志收養未成年子女:案例及法制基礎 8
第一節 桃園地方法院九十六年度養生字第八十一號裁定 8
第一項 案例事實 8
第二項 社工人員的訪視報告 9
第三項 法院裁定結果與理由 10
第四項 社會對同志收養的反應 11
第二節 民法親屬篇收養規定之沿革 12
第一項 傳統收養法制 12
第二項 民國七十四年收養規定之修正 14
第三項 民國九十六年收養規定之修正 15
第三節 世界潮流-聯合國兒童人權公約 19
第一項 肯認兒童主體性 19
第二項 確認子女最佳利益標準 21
第三項 兒童權益保障 22
第四節 小結 24
第三章 美國同志收養之實務與學說 26
第一節 同志收養的類型 26
第一項 陌生人收養 26
第二項 第二父母收養 29
第二節 陌生人收養 31
第一項 禁止陌生人收養-佛羅里達州Lofton案之憲法爭議 31
第一款 案例事實 32
第二款 原告主張及法院見解 33
第三款 學說對法院見解的討論 37
第一目 性隱私基本權 37
第二目 審查基準 38
第三目 平等保護 39
第四款 佛羅里達州的政策變化 40
第二項 允許陌生人收養 41
第一款 單身收養-In re Adoption of Charles B案 42
第二款 共同收養-In re Adoption of M.A案及In re Adoption of Carolyn B案 43
第三節 第二父母收養 46
第一項 拒絕肯認第二父母收養 46
第二項 允許第二父母收養 50
第一款 In re Adoption of M.M.G.C.案 51
第二款 In re Adoption of Tammy案 53
第四節 同志收養與子女最佳利益的辯證 55
第一項 性錯亂? 56
第二項 男同志易猥褻未成年子女? 59
第三項 同志是不適任的父母? 60
第四項 愛滋病風險與不穩定的同志伴侶關係? 63
第五項 同志違反社會道德? 64
第六項 社會壓力? 66
第五節 小結 69
第四章 寬容理論與同志家庭權之保障 71
第一節 寬容理論(Tolerance Theory) 71
第一項 寬容的定義及要件 72
第二項 洛克與彌爾的寬容理論 74
第三項 康德的寬容理論 76
第四項 多元化的寬容理論 78
第二節 美國最高法院對同志態度的轉變 79
第一項 第一階段-驚慌及厭惡 80
第二項 第二階段-轉變期 81
第三項 第三階段-寬容、尊重、接受 82
第四項 小結 86
第三節 同志家庭權的肯認 87
第一項 憲法上家庭權的依據 88
第一款 憲法第二十二條非列舉權 88
第二款 國際公約與釋憲實務上的肯認 90
第二項 家庭型態的變化 94
第三項 婚姻家庭之「制度性保障」限制同志收養? 96
第四項 憲法第二十三條限制同志收養? 101
第四節 小結 105
第五章 同志收養政策的未來方向-落實子女最佳利益 108
第一節 對於桃園地院裁定的評析 108
第一項 同志是不適任的父母? 108
第二項 性錯亂? 111
第三項 社會壓力? 113
第四項 小結 115
第二節 桃園地院運用訪視報告之現況 116
第三節 落實子女最佳利益 123
第一項 子女最佳利益的優缺點 123
第二項 社會科學資訊的運用 126
第三項 專業人員的協助及參與 130
第四項 審查要素的訂定 133
第一款 家庭環境 135
第二款 養育技巧 135
第三款 伴侶關係與愛滋病問題 136
第四節 同志收養政策的討論及建議 137
第一項 同志單身收養的政策方向及其抉擇 138
第二項 增加同志收養的類型-第二父母收養 141
第三項 盡速通過人權基本法 143
第四項 落實性別平等教育法 146
第六章 結論 151
參考文獻 156
參考文獻 參考文獻
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29. 黃昭元,車速限制與行為自主權,月旦法學教室,第五期,頁8-9(2003)。
30. 楊智傑,制度性保障說理模式對社會改革的阻礙(下),台灣本土法學第六十一期,頁5-16 (2004)。
31. 雷文玫,以「子女最佳利益」之名:離婚後父母對未成年子女權利義務行使與負擔,台大法學論叢,第二十八卷第三期,頁245-309(1999)。
32. 廖元豪,同性婚姻受憲法保障嗎?,月旦法學教室,第七十期,頁8-9(2008)。
33. 蔡宏光,棄嬰棄兒問題在法律上解決途徑之研探,華岡法粹,第二十九期,頁55-84(2003)。
34. 蔡宗珍,公法上之比例原則初論-以德國法的發展為中心,政大法學評論,第六二期,頁75-104(1999)。
35. 蔡維音,論家庭之制度保障-論釋字第五○二號解釋,月旦法學雜誌,第六十三期,頁138-143 (2000)。
36. 鄧學仁,評親屬法之修正,月旦民商法,第十七期,頁5-18(2007)。
37. 鄧學仁,親屬法修正與兒童權利保障,兒童及少年福利期刊,第十二期,頁13-21(2007)。
38. 賴文瑋,憲法解釋引用外國法之正當性-以美國聯邦最高法院判決為中心,憲政時代,第三十三卷第二期,頁221-252(2007)。
39. 駱俊宏、林燕卿、王素女、林蕙瑛,從異性戀霸權、父權體制觀看同性戀者之處境與污名,台灣性學學刊,第十一卷二期,頁61-73(2005)。
40. 戴東雄,論我國民法親屬篇之新修正,司法周刊,第一三四二期,頁1-32(2007)。
41. 戴瑀如,論德國同性伴侶法,月旦法學雜誌,第一零七期,頁145-165(2004)。
42. 謝如媛,刑法規範下的家庭秩序,台大法學論叢,第三十五卷第六期,頁291-329(2006)。

四、 中文網路資料
1. 中國拿破崙,拿破崙法典,http://www.napolun.com/era/civil-code/i/entry_8.htm (2009/3/27,造訪)。
2. 內政部社會司,社會福利政策綱領,http://sowf.moi.gov.tw/18/index.htm (2009/5/12,造訪)。
3. 內政部統計處,九十七年第二十三週內政統計通報(96年初婚與再婚者統計(按發生日期統計)),內政統計通報,http://www.moi.gov.tw/files/news_file/week9720.doc (2009/8/8,造訪)。
4. 公民與政治權利國際公約,法源法律網,http://db.lawbank.com.tw/FLAW/FLAWDAT0202.asp (2009/8/8,造訪)。
5. 司法院,第 1166 次不受理案件,http://www.judicial.gov.tw/constitutionalcourt/p04.asp (2009/8/8,造訪)。
6. 同志新聞通訊社,「性權是人權」專題,http://gsrat.net/news/newsclipDetail.php?pageNum_RecClipData=4&&ncdata_id=1586 (2009/8/8,造訪)。
7. 呂開瑞、楊德宜,女同志收養小孩 法院不准 林女與「老婆」收養妹妹女兒 法官:「將造成孩童性別錯亂」 駁回聲請,聯合報,http://www.wretch.cc/blog/tapwr/9934164 (2009/12/27,造訪)。
8. 完全透視收養程序專題-女同當媽,不是非生不可!,拉媽報 / LaMaNews,http://blog.yam.com/la_ma_news/article/21330365(2009/8/8,造訪)。
9. 婦女新知基金會,「母親節不快樂,還給不婚女人當媽媽的權利」母親節記者會,http://enews.url.com.tw/awaken/50657 (2009/11/08,造訪)。
10.經濟社會文化權利國際公約,法源法律網,http://db.lawbank.com.tw/FLAW/FLAWDAT0202.asp (2009/3/10,造訪)。
11.熊迺群,同志領養》纏訟如願收養 變性藝人聲援,聯合報,http://www.2her.com.tw/2006/fshow.php?C1id=1&C2id=2660&Cpage=1(2009/12/27,造訪)。
12. 賴月蜜,社會工作在法院體系內發展之探討與省思,http://www.ntpu.edu.tw/sw/temp/O_20071018091354.doc (2010/2/16,造訪)。


英文資料
一、 專書
1. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (3d ed. 1980).
2. Black's Law Dictionary (7th ed. 2004).
3. Carl Cade, Two Moms, No Hamburgers!, in Different Mothers: Sons and Daughters of Lesbians Talk About Their Lives (Louise Rafkin ed., 1990).
4. D.D. Raphael, The Intolerable, in Justifying Toleration: Conceptual and Historical Perspectives (Susan Mendus ed., 1988).
5. Irving J. Sloan, The Law of Adoption and Surrogate Parenting (1988).
6. John Gray, Two Faces of Liberalism (2000).
7. John Kekes, The Morality of Pluralism (1993).
8. Jonathan Todres、Mark E. Wojcik、Cris R. Revaz, The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (2006).
9. Judith Stacey & Timothy Biblarz, (How) Does the Gender of Parents Matter?, Paper presented at the Conference on Evolving Families, Institute for Social Science, Cornell University (2006).
10. Michael J. Sandel, Liberalism and the Limits of Justice (1982).
11. P.H. Collin, Dictionary of Law (1993).

二、 期刊
1. Amy D. Ronner, Women Who Dance On the Professional Track: Custody and the Red Shoes, 23 Harv. Women's L. J. 173 (2000).
2. Amy L. Wax, The Conservative's Dilemma: Traditional Institutions, Social Change, and Same-Sex Marriage, 42 San Diego L. Rev. 1059 (2005).
3. Amy L. Wax, Traditionalism, Pluralism, and Same-Sex Marriage, 59 Rutgers L. Rev. 377 (2007).
4. Andrew Koppelman, Why Discrimination Against Lesbians and Gay Men Is Sex Discrimination, 69 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 197 (1994).
5. Carlos A. Ball & Janice Farrell Pea, Warring with Wardle: Morality, Social Science, and Gay and Lesbian Parents, 1998 U. Ill. L. Rev. 253 (1998).
6. Carlos A. Ball, The Immorality of Statutory Restrictions on Adoption by Lesbians and Gay Men, 38 Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 379 (2007).
7. Charlotte J. Patterson, Adoption of Minor Children by Lesbian and Gay Adults: A Social Science Perspective, 2 Duke J. Gender L. & Pol'y 191 (1995).
8. Charlotte J. Patterson, Children of Lesbian and Gay Parents, 63 Child Dev. 1025 (1992).
9. Charlotte J. Patterson, Children of the Lesbian Baby Boom: Behavioral Adjustment, Self-Concepts, and Sex-Role Identity, Contemporary Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Psychology: Theory, Research, and Application 156 (1994).
10. Charlotte Patterson, Adoption of Minor Children by Lesbian and Gay Adults: A Social Science Perspective, 2 Duke J. Gender L. & Pol'y 191 (1995).
11. Christian Eichenlaub, "Minnesota Nice": A Comparative Analysis of Minnesota's Treatment of Adoption by Gay Couples, 5 U. St. Thomas L.J. 312 (2008)
12. Comment, Moppels on the Market: The Problem of Unregulated Adoptions, 59 Yale L.J. 715 (1950).
13. Contra Ann M. Reding, Note, Equal Protection Mandates Equal Adoption Rights, 36 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 1285 (2003).
14. Cynthia Price Cohen, Role of the United States in Drafting the Convention of the Rights of the Child: A New World for Children, 4 Loy. Poverty L.J. 9 (1998).
15. Cynthia R. Mabry, Opening Another Exit from Child Welfare for Special Needs Children-Why Some Gay Men and Lesbians Should Have the Privilege to Adopt Children in Florida, 18 St. Thomas L. Rev. 269 (2005).
16. David K. Flaks, Gay and Lesbian Families: Judicial Assumptions, Scientific Realities, 3 WM. & MARY BILL RTS. J. 345 (1994).
17. David L. Chambers, Rethinking the Substantive Rules for Custody Disputes in Divorce, 83 Mich. L. Rev. 477 (1984).
18. David M. Cotter, Current Trend in Second-Parent Adoptions, 17 No. 9 Divorce Litig. 141 (2005).
19. Debra L. Swank, Day Care and Parental Employment: What Weight Should They Be Given in Child Custody Disputes?, 41 Vill. L. Rev. 909 (1996).
20. Devjani Mishra, Note, The Road to Concord: Resolving the Conflict of Law Over Adoption by Gays and Lesbians, 30 Colum. J.L. & Soc. Probs. 91 (1996).
21. Emily Doskow, The Second Parent Trap: Parenting for Same-Sex Couples in a Brave New World, 20 J. Juv. L. 1 (1999).
22. Erica Gesing, Note, The Fight to Be a Parent: How Courts Have Restricted the Constitutionally-Based Challenges Available to Homosexuals, 38 New Eng. L. Rev. 841 (2004).
23. F. Kallman, Comparative Twin Study on the Genetic Aspects of Male Homosexuality, 115 J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 283 (1952).
24. Garman, International Law and Children's Human Rights: International, Constitutional, and Political Conflicts Blocking Passage of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 41 Val. U. L. Rev. 659 (2007).
25. Green, Should Heterosexuality Be in the APA Nomenclature?, 130 Am. J. Psychiatry 1213 (1973).
26. Harel Arnon, Legal Reasoning: Justifying Tolerance in the U.S. Supreme Court, 2 Nyu J. L. & Liberty 262 (2007).
27. Heather J. Langemak, Comment, The "Best Interest of the Child": Is a Categorical Ban on Homosexual Adoption on Appropriate Means to This End?, 83 Marq. L. Rev. 825 (2000).
28. Holning Lau, Pluralism: A Principle for Children's Rights, 42 Harv. C.R.-C.L. L. Rev., 317 (2007).
29. Jane S. Schacter, Skepticism, Culture and the Gay Civil Rights Debate in a Post-Civil-Rights Era, 110 Harv. L. Rev. 684 (1997).
30. Jay Schiffman, Tolerance as Understanding, 3 Margins: Md. L.J. Race, Religion, Gender & Class 1 (2003).
31. Jehnna Irene Hanan, The Best Interest of the Child: Eliminating Discrimination in the Screening of Adoptive Parents, 27 Golden Gate U. L. Rev. 167 (1997).
32. Jenni Hetzel-Gaynor, Note, What About the Children? The Fight for Homosexual Adoption After Lawrence and Lofton, 51 Wayne L. Rev. 1271 (Fall 2005).
33. Jennifer L. Wainright, Stephen T. Russell, & Charlotte J. Patterson, Psychosocial Adjustment, Social Outcomes, and Romantic Relationships of Adolescents With Same-Sex Parents, 75 Child Dev. 1886 (2004).
34. Jo-Ellen Paradise, The Disparity Between Men and Women in Custody Disputes: Is Joint Custody the Answer to Everyone's Problems, 72 St. John's L. Rev. 517 (1998).
35. Joseph Evall, Sexual Orientation and Adoptive Matching, 25 FAM. L.Q. 347 (1991).
36. Judith Stacey & Timothy J Biblarz, How Does the Sexual Orientation of Parents Matter?, 66:2 American Sociological Review 159 (Apr. 2001).
37. Judith Stacey & Timothy J. Biblarz, (How) Does the Sexual Orientation of Parents Matter?, 66 Am. Soc. Rev. 159 (2001).
38. Juliet A. Cox, Comment, Judicial Enforcement of Moral Imperatives: Is the Best Interest of the Child Being Sacrificed to Maintain Societal Homogeneity?, 59 Mo. L. Rev. 775 (1994).
39. June Carbone, Autonomy to Choose What Constitutes Family: Oxymoron Or Basic Right?, 1 Ius Gentium 11 (2007).
40. Kathy T. Graham, Same-Sex Couples: Their Right as Parents, and Their Children's Right as Childeren, 48 Santa Clara L. Rev. 999 (2008).
41. Laura A. Turbe, Florida's Inconsistent Use of the Best Interests of the Child Standard, 33 Stetson L. Rev. 369 (2003).
42. Lauren M. Spitz, Implementing the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child: Children's Rights Under the 1996 South African Constitution, 38 Vand. J. Transnat'l L. 853 (2005).
43. Lauren Schwartzreich, Restructuring the Framework for Legal Analyses of Gay Parenting, 21 Harv. Blackletter L. J. 109, 109 (2005).
44. Linda C. McClain, Toleration, Autonomy, and Governmental Promotion of Good Lives: Beyond "Empty" Toleration to Toleration as Respect, 59 Ohio St L J 19 (1998).
45. Lynn D. Wardle, Parentlessness: Adoption Problems, Paradigms, Policies, and Parameters, 4 Whittier J. Child & Fam. Advoc. 323 (2005).
46. Lynn D. Wardle, The "Inner Lives" of Children in Lesbigay Adoption: Narratives and Other Concerns, 18 St. Thomas L. Rev. 511 (2006).
47. Marc E. Elovitz, Adoption by Lesbian and Gay People: The Use and Mis-Use of Social Science Research, 2 Duke J. Gender L. & Pol'y 207 (1995).
48. Marc Wolinsky, Feature, Stereotypes, Tolerance and Acceptance: Gay Rights in Courts of Law and Public Opinion, 19 Del. Law. 13 (2001).
49. Margaret Brinig, Symposium: Empirical and Experimental Methods of Law: Empirical Work in Family Law, 2002 U. Ill. L. Rev. 1083 (2002).
50. Mark Strasser, Family, Definitions, and the Constitution: On the Antimiscegenation Analogy, 25 Suffolk U. L. Rev. 981 (1991).
51. Mark Strasser, Legislative Presumptions and Judicial Assumptions: On Parenting, Adoption, and the Best Interest of the Child, 45 Kan. L. Rev. 49 (1996).
52. Martin R. Gardner, Adoption by Homosexuals in the Wake of Lawrence v. Texas, 6 J.L. & Fam. Stud. 19 (2004).
53. Mary Becker , Maternal Feelings: Myth, Taboo, and Child Custody, 1 S. Cal. Rev. L. & Women's Stud. 133 (1992).
54. Mary Joe Frug, A Postmodern Feminist Legal Manifesto (An Unfinished Work), 105 Harv. L. Rev. 1045 (1992).
55. Mary Kate Kearney, The New Paradigm in Custody Law: Looking at Parents with a Loving Eye, 28 Ariz. St. L. J. 543 (1996).
56. Megan Backer, Giving Lawrence Its Due: How the Eleventh Circuit Underestimated the Due Process Implications of Lawrence v. Texas in Lofton v. Secretary of the Department of Children & Family Services, 90 Minn. L. Rev. 745 (2006).
57. Michael J. Sandel, Political Liberalism, 107 Harv. L. Rev. 1765 (1994).
58. Michael S. Wald, Adults' Sexual Orientation and State Determinations Regarding Placement of Children, 40 Fam L. Q. 381 (2006).
59. Nicole M. Shkedi, Comment, When Harry Met Lawrence: Allowing Gays and Lesbians to Adopt, 35 Seton Hall L. Rev. 873 (2005).
60. Patterson, Charlotte J., Children of Lesbian and Gay Parents, 15 Psychological Science 5 (2006).
61. Richard E. Redding, It's Really About Sex: Same-Sex Marriage, Lesbigay Parenting, and the Psychology of Disgust, 15 Duke J. Gender L. & Pol'y 127 (2008).
62. Richard G. Wilkins et al., Adult Sexual Desire and the Best Interests of the Child, 18 St. Thomas L. Rev. 543 (2005).
63. Robin West, Progressive and Conservative Constitutionalism, 88 Mich. L. Rev. 641 (1990).
64. Sanford J. Fox, Beyond the American Legal System for the Protection of Children's Rights, 31 Fam. L.Q. 237 (1997).
65. Scott H. Clark, Married Persons Favored as Adoptive Parents: The Utah Perspective, 5 J.L. & Fam. Stud. 203 (2003).
66. Shaista-Pareveen Ali, Homosexual Parenting: Child Custody and Adoption, 22 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 1009 (1989).
67. Spitzer, A Proposal about Homosexuality and the APA Nomenclature: Homosexuality as an Irregular Form of Sexual Behavior and Sexual Orientation Disturbance as a Psychiatric Disorder, 130 Am. J. Psychiatry 1215 (1973).
68. Steve Susoeff, Comment, Assessing Children's Best Interests When a Parent is Gay or Lesbian: Toward a Rational Custody Standard, 32 Ucla L. Rev. 852 (1985).
69. Susan Golombok & Fiona Tasker, Do Parents Influence the Sexual Orientation of Their Children? Findings From a Longitudinal Study of Lesbian Families, 31 Developmental Psychol. 3 (1996).
70. Susan Golombok & Fiona Tasker, Do Parents Influence the Sexual Orientation of Their Children? Findings From a Longitudinal Study of Lesbian Families, 32 Developmental Psych. 3 (1996).
71. Susan Golombok et al., Children with Lesbian Parents: A Community Study, 39 Developmental Psychol. 20 (2003).
72. Susan O'Rourke Von Struensee, Violence, Exploitation and Children: Highlights of the United Nations Children's Human Rights, 18 Suffolk Transnat'l L. Rev. 589 (1995).
73. Suzanne B. Goldberg, Constitutional Tipping Points: Civil Rights, Social Change, and Fact-Based Adjudication, 106 Colum. L. Rev. 1955 (2006).
74. Suzanne B. Goldberg, Intuition, Morals, and the Legal Conversation about Gay Rights, 32 Nova L. Rev. 523 (2008).
75. Suzanne B. Goldberg, Morals-Based Justifications for Lawmaking: Before and After Lawrence v. Texas, 88 Minn. L. Rev. 1233 (2004).
76. Suzanne Bryant, Second Parent Adoption: A Model Brief, 2 Duke J. Gender L. & Pol'y 233 (1995).
77. Sylvia A. Law, Homosexuality and the Social Meaning of Gender, 1988 Wis. L. Rev. 187 (1988).
78. Timothy Arcaro, Florida's Foster Care System Fails Its Children, 25 Nova L. Rev. 641 (2001).
79. Timothy E. Lin, Social Norms and Judicial Decisionmaking: Examing the Role Narratives in Same-sex Adoption Cases, 90 Colum. L. Rev. 739 (1999).
80. Vanessa A. Lavely, Comment, The Path to Recognition of Same-Sex Marriage: Reconciling the Inconsistencies Between Marriage and Adoption Cases, 55 Ucla L. Rev. 247 (2007).
81. Victoria Clarke, What About the Children?: Arguments Against Lesbian and Gay Parenting, 24 Women's Stud. Int'l Forum 555 (2001).
82. William E. Adams, Jr., Whose Family Is It Anyway? The Continuing Struggle for Lesbians and Gay Men Seeking to Adopt Children, 30 New Eng. L. Rev. 579 (1996).

三、 實務判決
1. Adoption of Evan, 583 N.Y.S.2d 997 (N.Y. Cty. Surrogate Ct. 1992).
2. Adoption of J.M.G., 632 A.2d 550, 554 (N.J. Super Ct. 1993).
3. Boutilier v. Immigration and Naturalization Service, 387 U.S. 118 (1967).
4. Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U.S. 186 (1986).
5. Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, 530 U.S. 640 (2000).
6. Collins v. City of Harker Heights, 503 U.S. 115 (1992).
7. Eisenstadt v. Baird, 405 U.S. 438 (1972).
8. Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 489 (1965).
9. Hurley v. Irish-American Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Group of Boston, 515 U.S. 557 (1995).
10. In Interest of Angel Lace M., 516 N.W.2d 678 (Wis.1994).
11. In re Adoption of Carolyn B., 774 N.Y.S.2d 227 (N.Y. App. Div. 2004).
12. In re Adoption of Charles B., 552 N.E.2d 884 (Ohio 1990).
13. In re Adoption of Luke, 640 N.W.2d 374 (Neb. 2002).
14. In re Adoption of M.A., 930 A.2d 1088 (2007).
15. In re Adoption of M.M.G.C., 785 N.E.2d 267 (Ind. Ct. App. 2003).
16. In re Adoption of Tammy, 619 N.E.2d 315 (Mass. 1993).
17. In re Adoption of a Child by J.M.G., 632 A.2d 55 (7th Cir. 1996).
18. In re Jessalyn AA, 276 A.D.2d 97 (3d Dep't 2001).
19. Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003).
20. Lofton v. Secretary of Dept. of Children and Family Service, 358 F.3d 804 (2004).
21. M.P. v. S.P., 404 A.2d 1256, 1263 (N.J. Super. Ct. App. Div. 1979).
22. Manual Enterprises, Inc. v. Day, 370 U.S. 478 (1962).
23. Nabozny v. Podlesny, 92 F.3d 446 (1996).
24. Palmore v. Sidoti, 466 U.S. 429 (1984).
25. Poe v. Ullman, 367 U.S. 497 (1961).
26. Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620 (1996).
27. Rowland v. Mad River Local School Dist., Montgomery County, Ohio, 470 U.S. 1009 (1985).
28. S.N.E. v. R.L.B., 699 P.2d 875 (Alaska 1985).
29. Smith v. Organization of Foster Families for Equality and Reform, 431 U.S. 816 (1977).
30. Troxel v. Granville, 530 U.S. 57 (2000).

四、 英文網路資料
1. Are People "Born Gay? "A look at the most cited biological research studies , http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~bio372-c/class/behavior/apbg.htm (last visited August 5, 2009).
2. Are People "Born Gay?" A Look at the Most Cited Biological Research Studies, CNN, Male Hormone Levels in Womb May Affect Sexual Orientation, Study Says, http://archives.cnn.com/2000/HEALTH/03/29/gay.fingers/ (last visited August 5, 2009).
3. Arthur S. Leonard, European Court Says Human Right Convention Protects Gay Adoption Right, Lesbian/Gay/ Law Notes, 15-16, available at http://old.nyls.edu/pdfs/ln0802.pdf (last visited October 18, 2008).
4. E.B. v. France, Application No.43546/02 (2008); Arthur S. Leonard, European Court Says Human Right Convention Protects Gay Adoption Right, Lesbian/Gay Law Note, http://www.nyls.edu/user_files/1/3/4/30/59/65/66/ln0802.pdf (accessed February 8, 2009).
5. Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute, Expanding Resources for Children: Adoption by gays & lesbians, http://www.adoptioninstitute.org/publications/2006_Expanding_Resources_for_Children%20_March_.pdf (last visited March 3, 2009).
6. Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute, Expanding Resources for Children: Is Adoption by Gays and Lesbians Part of the Answer for Boys and Girls Who Need Homes?, http://www.adoptioninstitute.org/publications/2006_Expanding_Resources_for_Children%20_March_.pdf (last visited March 3, 2009).
7. Fact Sheet: Overview of Lesbian and Gay Parenting, Adoption and Foster Care, American Civil Liberties Union, Apr. 6, 1999, http://www.aclu.org/news/NewsPrint.cfm?ID=9212&c=104 (last visited March 3, 2009).
8. Family Pride, REAL FAMILIES, REAL FACTS:Research Symposium on LGBT-headed Families, http://www.familypride.org/researchers/SymposiumSummary.pdf (last visited February 8, 2009).
9. Jennifer Michael, Defining Family: Piecing Together how Two Moms or Two Dads Fit into the Picture, Children's Voice, Sept.-Oct. 2006, http://www.cwla.org/voice/0609family.htm (last visited March 3, 2009).
10. Joshua K. Baker, Institute for Marriage and Public Policy & William C. Duncan, Marriage Law Foundation, Marital Preferences In Adoption Law: A 50 State Review, http://www.marriagedebate.com/pdf/iMAPPmarriage.adoption.pdf (last visited March 3, 2009).
11. Michael Bailey & Richard Pillard, Are Some People Born Gay?, http://www2.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs.cmu.edu/user/scotts/bulgarians/nature-nurture/bailey-pillard.html (last visited August 5, 2009).
12. Susan Golombok et al., Children with Lesbian Parents: A Community Study, 39 Developmental Psychol. 20, http://www.seta.fi/perheprojekti/documents/ChildrenwithLesbianParents.pdf (last visited February 8, 2009).
13. Youth Leadership and Action Program of Colage, Tips for Making Classrooms Safer for Students with Lesbian,Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Parents, http://www.colage.org/pubs/safe_classrooms.pdf (last visited February 8, 2009).
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